[60], The topography of the Moon has been measured with laser altimetry and stereo image analysis. [164] As the Earth rotates on its axis, one of the ocean bulges (high tide) is held in place "under" the Moon, while another such tide is opposite. This is the percentage of the Moon illuminated by the Sun. The Moon is tidally locked to Earth, which means that the length of a full rotation of the Moon on its own axis (a lunar day) is the same as the synodic period, resulting in its same side (the near side) always facing Earth. [240], On 29 November 2018 NASA announced that nine commercial companies would compete to win a contract to send small payloads to the Moon in what is known as Commercial Lunar Payload Services. Wir glauben an die Notwendigkeit der Pariser Klimaziele und bieten daher nachhaltige, intelligente und datengetriebene Energielösungen an. [62][64] The highest elevations of the surface are located directly to the northeast, and it has been suggested might have been thickened by the oblique formation impact of the South Pole–Aitken basin. [228], NASA began to plan to resume human missions following the call by U.S. President George W. Bush on 14 January 2004 for a human mission to the Moon by 2019 and the construction of a lunar base by 2024. However, Earth and the Moon have nearly identical isotopic compositions. e [271] The PIE root of moon, *méh1nōt, derives from the PIE verbal root *meh1-, "to measure", "indicat[ing] a functional conception of the Moon, i.e. [71] Unlike most satellites of other planets, the Moon orbits closer to the ecliptic plane than to the planet's equatorial plane. These follow-on effects are mathematically described by Cassini's laws.[143]. Astronaut Sam Bell has a quintessentially personal encounter toward the end of his three-year stint on the Moon, where he, working alongside his computer, GERTY, sends back to Earth parcels of a resource that has helped diminish our planet's power problems. September 2018, 04.17 Uhr. Wir laden Sie herzlich dazu ein, sich unserer Bewegung anzuschließen! The orientation of the Moon's crescent also depends on the latitude of the viewing location; an observer in the tropics can see a smile-shaped crescent Moon. Mit seiner Frau Tess und seiner kleinen Tochter Eve auf der Erde steht er nur per Video-Botschaften in Verbindung. Thomas Harriot had made, but not published such drawings a few months earlier. Dabei wird er von einer künstlichen Intelligenz namens GERTY unterstützt. [70], Almost all maria are on the near side of the Moon, and cover 31% of the surface of the near side,[71] compared with 2% of the far side. Privately funded lunar exploration has been promoted by the Google Lunar X Prize, announced 13 September 2007, which offers US$20 million to anyone who can land a robotic rover on the Moon and meet other specified criteria. [71] Rock and soil samples were brought back to Earth by three Luna sample return missions (Luna 16 in 1970, Luna 20 in 1972, and Luna 24 in 1976), which returned 0.3 kg total. This was the first lunar soft landing since Luna 24 in 1976, and the first lunar rover mission since Lunokhod 2 in 1973. The Moon does not currently have a global dipolar magnetic field and only has crustal magnetization likely acquired early in its history when a dynamo was still operating. In 1990, Japan became the third country to place a spacecraft into lunar orbit with its Hiten spacecraft. The Moon (or Luna) is the Earth’s only natural satellite and was formed 4.6 billion years ago around some 30–50 million years after the formation of the solar system.The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth meaning the same side is always facing the Earth. When exposed to solar radiation, water quickly decomposes through a process known as photodissociation and is lost to space. [161][162], The Moon's appearance, like the Sun's, can be affected by Earth's atmosphere. [185](p411) The edges of the full moon seem as bright as the center, without limb darkening, because of the reflective properties of lunar soil, which retroreflects light more towards the Sun than in other directions. Months are traditionally determined by the visual sighting of the hilal, or earliest crescent moon, over the horizon.[279]. [251], Although Luna landers scattered pennants of the Soviet Union on the Moon, and U.S. flags were symbolically planted at their landing sites by the Apollo astronauts, no nation claims ownership of any part of the Moon's surface. sin Beneath the finely comminuted regolith layer is the megaregolith, a layer of highly fractured bedrock many kilometers thick. The existence of moonquakes was an unexpected discovery from seismometers placed on the Moon by Apollo astronauts from 1969 through 1972. Allerdings wird in einem Telefonat noch der Vorwurf erhoben, der „angebliche Klon“ sei ein „Spinner oder illegaler Einwanderer“, so oder so gehöre er ins Gefängnis, was als ein Versuch von Lunar Industries interpretiert werden kann, den Vorfall zu vertuschen. Here's the thing. {\displaystyle e} Because of this, the Moon's solar illumination varies much less with season, and topographical details play a crucial role in seasonal effects. Juli 2010. Noch bevor der neueste Sam erwacht, gelingt es dem jüngeren Sam, sich mit einer Helium-3-Transport-Kapsel zur Erde zu schießen. Nach Ablauf dieser drei Jahre wurde jeder vorherige Klon in der vermeintlichen Rückflugkapsel vernichtet. Dadurch versucht er, einem von ihm und GERTY aktivierten dritten Sam nach Abzug des „Rettungsteams“ die Situation zu vermitteln. [122] This early dynamo field apparently expired by about one billion years ago, after the lunar core had completely crystallized. Our moon is about a quarter the size of the Earth. / [212] In 1994, the U.S. sent the joint Defense Department/NASA spacecraft Clementine to lunar orbit. [6], Im Lexikon des internationalen Films wird das Werk als „kammerspielartiges Science-Fiction-Drama“ bezeichnet. The inclusions were formed during explosive eruptions on the Moon approximately 3.7 billion years ago. [150] The Moon is visible for two weeks every 27.3 days at the North and South Poles. The rotation period depends on the frame of reference. Super Full Moon: Mar 9; Micro New Moon: Mar 24; Super Full Moon: Apr 7; Penumbral Lunar Eclipse visible in New York on Jul 4 – Jul 5; Black Moon: Aug 18 (third New Moon in a season with four New Moons) Micro Full Moon: Oct 1; Super New Moon: Oct 16; Blue Moon: … The English noun month and its cognates in other Germanic languages stem from Proto-Germanic *mǣnṓth-, which is connected to the above-mentioned Proto-Germanic *mǣnōn, indicating the usage of a lunar calendar among the Germanic peoples (Germanic calendar) prior to the adoption of a solar calendar. Ranging to the stations is routinely performed from Earth-based stations with an accuracy of a few centimeters, and data from this experiment are being used to place constraints on the size of the lunar core.[211]. The Greek goddess of the wilderness and the hunt, Artemis, equated with the Roman Diana, one of whose symbols was the Moon and who was often regarded as the goddess of the Moon, was also called Cynthia, from her legendary birthplace on Mount Cynthus. However, the Sun will become a red giant engulfing the Earth-Moon system long before this occurrence. [30] These names – Luna, Cynthia and Selene – are reflected in technical terms for lunar orbits such as apolune, pericynthion and selenocentric. [191] Archimedes (287–212 BC) designed a planetarium that could calculate the motions of the Moon and other objects in the Solar System. Longterm missions continuing to be active are some orbiters such as the 2009 launched Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter surveiling the Moon for future missions, as well as some Landers such as the 2013 launched Chang'e 3 with its Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope still operational.[242]. marker of the month" (cf. In 2016, planetary scientists using data collected on the much earlier NASA Lunar Prospector mission, found two hydrogen-rich areas (most likely former water ice) on opposite sides of the Moon. [201], Following President John F. Kennedy's 1961 commitment to a human moon landing before the end of the decade, the United States, under NASA leadership, launched a series of uncrewed probes to develop an understanding of the lunar surface in preparation for human missions: the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Ranger program produced the first close-up pictures; the Lunar Orbiter program produced maps of the entire Moon; the Surveyor program landed its first spacecraft four months after Luna 9. Die Firma schickt das „Rettungsteam“ ELIZA um die Folgen des Unfalls zu bereinigen; die beiden Sam Bells müssen daher um ihr Leben fürchten. The more exact 1834–36 Mappa Selenographica of Wilhelm Beer and Johann Heinrich Mädler, and their associated 1837 book Der Mond, the first trigonometrically accurate study of lunar features, included the heights of more than a thousand mountains, and introduced the study of the Moon at accuracies possible in earthly geography. As a result, the Moon would be suspended in the sky over one meridian, as is already currently the case with Pluto and its moon Charon. Another rover mission (Chang'e 4) was launched in 2019, becoming the first ever spacecraft to land on the Moon's far side. The 7th-century Islamic calendar is an exceptional example of a purely lunar calendar. Between 4 October 2007 and 10 June 2009, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Kaguya (Selene) mission, a lunar orbiter fitted with a high-definition video camera, and two small radio-transmitter satellites, obtained lunar geophysics data and took the first high-definition movies from beyond Earth orbit. The Moon is a differentiated rocky body; has a surface gravity of 0.1654 g, about one-sixth of Earth's; and lacks a significant atmosphere, hydrosphere or magnetic field. This makes possible both total (with the Moon appearing larger than the Sun) and annular (with the Moon appearing smaller than the Sun) solar eclipses. [166] Libration also changes the angle from which the Moon is seen, allowing a total of about 59% of its surface to be seen from Earth over time. Nach fast drei Jahren ohne direkten Kontakt zu anderen Menschen steht er vierzehn Tage vor seiner Ablösung. Long-lived instrument stations, including heat flow probes, seismometers, and magnetometers, were installed at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites. , where LDEX detected an average of one 0.3 micrometer Moon dust particle each minute. [75] Until recently, the youngest eruptions, dated by crater counting, appeared to have been only 1.2 billion years ago. Earth's only natural satellite is simply called "the Moon" because people didn't know other moons existed until Galileo Galilei discovered four moons orbiting Jupiter in 1610. [185](pp413–414) In the 2nd century AD, Lucian wrote the novel A True Story, in which the heroes travel to the Moon and meet its inhabitants. In Proto-Indo-European religion, the Moon was personified as the male god *Meh1not. Their shape is often accentuated by low albedo regions that wind between the bright swirls. = This concentration is comparable with that of magma in Earth's upper mantle. The Moon is an exceptionally large natural satellite relative to Earth: Its diameter is more than a quarter and its mass is 1/81 of Earth's. Our most popular, showy wildflowers for a spot that is sunny, at least most of the time. The Moon's orbit around Earth has a sidereal period of 27.3 days, and a synodic period of 29.5 days. Lunar swirls are enigmatic features found across the Moon's surface. 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