The first manmade object to reach the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 2 uncrewed spacecraft in 1959; this was followed by the first successful soft landing by Luna 9 in 1966. There are some puzzles: lava flows by themselves cannot explain all of the gravitational signature, and some mascons exist that are not linked to mare volcanism. Google Moon kostenlos downloaden! Between the first human arrival with the robotic Soviet Luna program in 1958, to the 1970s with the last Missions of the crewed U.S. Apollo landings and last Luna mission in 1976, the Cold War-inspired Space Race between the Soviet Union and the U.S. led to an acceleration of interest in exploration of the Moon. The Moon's orbit around Earth has a sidereal period of 27.3 days, and a synodic period of 29.5 days. {\displaystyle \scriptstyle 1.14^{2}\approx 1.30} Wir laden Sie herzlich dazu ein, sich unserer Bewegung anzuschließen! With Sam Rockwell, Kevin Spacey, Dominique McElligott, Rosie Shaw. Verwenden Sie LED als Lichtquelle, verbrauchen Sie nur 3 Watt, Lebensdauer ist länger als 50.000 Stunden ; Stellen Sie eine 1,6 m lange Leitung mit EIN / AUS-Schalter bereit. 1 The Moon's orbit is subtly perturbed by the Sun and Earth in many small, complex and interacting ways. The moon. The side of the Moon that faces Earth is called the near side, and the opposite the far side. Estimates are 5 tons of comet particles strike the Moon's surface every 24 hours. [154] Reported as a "supermoon", this closest point coincided within an hour of a full moon, and it was 30% more luminous than when at its greatest distance because its angular diameter is 14% greater and Months are traditionally determined by the visual sighting of the hilal, or earliest crescent moon, over the horizon.[279]. The finer regolith, the lunar soil of silicon dioxide glass, has a texture resembling snow and a scent resembling spent gunpowder. [204][205] The Apollo missions 11 to 17 (except Apollo 13, which aborted its planned lunar landing) removed 380.05 kilograms (837.87 lb) of lunar rock and soil in 2,196 separate samples. [75][76] In contrast to Earth, no major lunar mountains are believed to have formed as a result of tectonic events. [36], The prevailing hypothesis is that the Earth–Moon system formed after a giant impact of a Mars-sized body (named Theia) with the proto-Earth. Bequem für Babys und Eltern. The Moon's apparent size is nearly the same as that of the Sun, allowing it to cover the Sun almost completely during a total solar eclipse. While our Moon is airless, research indicates the presence of a form of rust that normally requires oxygen and water. Eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, and Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists: "You have eighteen months. The usual English proper name for Earth's natural satellite is simply the Moon, with a capital M.[16][17] The noun moon is derived from Old English mōna, which (like all its Germanic cognates) stems from Proto-Germanic *mēnōn,[18] which in turn comes from Proto-Indo-European *mēnsis "month"[19] (from earlier *mēnōt, genitive *mēneses) which may be related to the verb "measure" (of time).[20]. Afterward, there were essentially only two groups: the giant impact camp and the agnostics. Source Code (2011) | These figures were greatly improved by Ptolemy (90–168 AD): his values of a mean distance of 59 times Earth's radius and a diameter of 0.292 Earth diameters were close to the correct values of about 60 and 0.273 respectively. The surface area of the Moon is slightly less than the areas of North and South America combined. A secondary cratering process caused by distal ejecta is thought to churn the top two centimeters of regolith a hundred times more quickly than previous models suggested – on a timescale of 81,000 years.[96][97]. Years of near lunar quietude followed, only broken by a beginning internationalization of space and the Moon through for example the negotiation of the Moon treaty. These discrepancies may be explained by variations of the giant impact hypothesis. The Earth revolves around the Earth-Moon barycentre once a sidereal month, with 1/81 the speed of the Moon, or about 12.5 metres (41 ft) per second. [62][63] At 13 km (8.1 mi) deep, its floor is the lowest point on the surface of the Moon. "Detection of Water in the LCROSS Ejecta Plume", "High Pre-Eruptive Water Contents Preserved in Lunar Melt Inclusions", "Beyond the Shadow of a Doubt, Water Ice Exists on the Moon", "Water Ice Confirmed on the Surface of the Moon for the 1st Time! The impact blasted material into Earth's orbit and then the material accreted and formed the Moon.[37][38]. [264][265] The star and crescent arrangement also goes back to the Bronze Age, representing either the Sun and Moon, or the Moon and planet Venus, in combination. The splitting of the moon (Arabic: انشقاق القمر‎) is a miracle attributed to Muhammad. These missions returned lunar rocks which have been used to develop a detailed geological understanding of the Moon's origins, internal structure, and subsequent history; the most widely accepted origin explanation posits that the Moon formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth, out of the debris from a giant impact between the planet and a hypothetical Mars-sized body called Theia. ⁡ [61] Its most visible topographic feature is the giant far-side South Pole–Aitken basin, some 2,240 km (1,390 mi) in diameter, the largest crater on the Moon and the second-largest confirmed impact crater in the Solar System. [252] Russia, China, India, and the U.S. are party to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty,[253] which defines the Moon and all outer space as the "province of all mankind". [193], In 1609, Galileo Galilei drew one of the first telescopic drawings of the Moon in his book Sidereus Nuncius and noted that it was not smooth but had mountains and craters. Ware ist dadurch jederzeit verfügbar – auch wenn diese sich aktuell nicht bei Ihnen auf Lager befindet. [190] In the same century, Aristarchus computed the size and distance of the Moon from Earth, obtaining a value of about twenty times the radius of Earth for the distance. Although similar to terrestrial basalts, lunar basalts have more iron and no minerals altered by water. This rotation is due to tidal locking synchronous to its orbital period around Earth. sin [40] However, more recent simulations suggest a larger fraction of the Moon derived from the proto-Earth. The Moon makes a complete orbit around Earth with respect to the fixed stars about once every 27.3 days[g] (its sidereal period). Regulärer Kinostart in Deutschland war am 15. Earth's Moon is the fifth largest of the 190+ moons orbiting planets in our solar system. This is the percentage of the Moon illuminated by the Sun. During the late 1950s at the height of the Cold War, the United States Army conducted a classified feasibility study that proposed the construction of a staffed military outpost on the Moon called Project Horizon with the potential to conduct a wide range of missions from scientific research to nuclear Earth bombardment. Common optical effects are the 22° halo ring, formed when the Moon's light is refracted through the ice crystals of high cirrostratus clouds, and smaller coronal rings when the Moon is seen through thin clouds.[163]. [12] The Moon rock samples of the flood lavas that erupted onto the surface from partial melting in the mantle confirm the mafic mantle composition, which is more iron-rich than that of Earth. However, the Sun will become a red giant engulfing the Earth-Moon system long before this occurrence. [202], Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the Moon as the commander of the American mission Apollo 11 by first setting foot on the Moon at 02:56 UTC on 21 July 1969. [91] The lack of an atmosphere, weather and recent geological processes mean that many of these craters are well-preserved. [228], NASA began to plan to resume human missions following the call by U.S. President George W. Bush on 14 January 2004 for a human mission to the Moon by 2019 and the construction of a lunar base by 2024. [47][48] Similarly, the newly formed Moon would also have been affected and had its own lunar magma ocean; its depth is estimated from about 500 km (300 miles) to 1,737 km (1,079 miles). The synodic period drives its lunar phases, which form the basis for the months of a lunar calendar. [84][85], The lighter-colored regions of the Moon are called terrae, or more commonly highlands, because they are higher than most maria. The adjective selenian /səliːniən/,[24] derived from the Greek word for the Moon, σελήνη selēnē, and used to describe the Moon as a world rather than as an object in the sky, is rare,[25] while its cognate selenic was originally a rare synonym[26] but now nearly always refers to the chemical element selenium. Most historical calendars are lunisolar. The order emphasizes that "the United States does not view outer space as a 'global commons'" and calls the Moon Agreement "a failed attempt at constraining free enterprise."[259][260]. Der US-amerikanische Schauspieler Sam Rockwell spielt in dem Film eine Doppel- bzw. There are several missions by different agencies and companies planned to establish a longterm human presence on the Moon, with the Lunar Gateway as the currently most advanced project as part of the Artemis program. [213] This was followed in 1998 by the Lunar Prospector mission, whose instruments indicated the presence of excess hydrogen at the lunar poles, which is likely to have been caused by the presence of water ice in the upper few meters of the regolith within permanently shadowed craters. They are characterized by a high albedo, appear optically immature (i.e. The far side is often inaccurately called the "dark side", but it is in fact illuminated as often as the near side: once every 29.5 Earth days. For moons in general, see, From Earth, the Moon and the Sun appear the same size, as seen in the, The range of angular size values given are based on simple scaling of the following values given in the fact sheet reference: at an Earth-equator to Moon-centre distance of 378 000 km, the. Computer simulations of giant impacts have produced results that are consistent with the mass of the lunar core and the angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system. [131], A permanent asymmetric Moon dust cloud exists around the Moon, created by small particles from comets. In November 2011, the LRO passed over the large and bright crater Aristarchus. The lunar surface is relatively non-reflective, with a reflectance just slightly brighter than that of worn asphalt. [13] The Moon orbits Earth at an average lunar distance of 384,400 km (238,900 mi),[14] or 1.28 light-seconds. MOON beliefert Ihre Kunden direkt oder wahlweise an eine Versandadresse. The main lunar gravity features are mascons, large positive gravitational anomalies associated with some of the giant impact basins, partly caused by the dense mare basaltic lava flows that fill those basins. For an eclipse to occur, the Moon must be near the intersection of the two orbital planes. [256][257][258], In 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump signed an executive order called "Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources". An initially hotter mantle and/or local enrichment of heat-producing elements in the mantle could be responsible for prolonged activities also on the far side in the Orientale basin. [262] In Greco-Roman mythology, the Sun and the Moon are represented as male and female, respectively (Helios/Sol and Selene/Luna);[261] this is a development unique to the eastern Mediterranean[261] and traces of an earlier male moon god in the Greek tradition are preserved in the figure of Menelaus.[261]. At the 1984 conference at Kona, Hawaii, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most consensual theory. [100] The presence of usable quantities of water on the Moon is an important factor in rendering lunar habitation as a cost-effective plan; the alternative of transporting water from Earth would be prohibitively expensive. Aus der One-Man-Show des eindrucksvollen Schauspielers Sam Rockwell wird quasi eine Two-Men-Show, und das scheinbar so kleine Science-Fiction-Drama entwickelt echten Mehrwert.“[9], Wilfried Hippen von der tageszeitung ist ähnlicher Meinung und stellt bei Moon den Bezug zu bekannten Motiven heraus: Der Film belebe „das schöne alte Genre der Weltraumfilme mit Mondmobil, Raumanzug und Zitaten aus 2001 neu“. [87][88], The other major geologic process that has affected the Moon's surface is impact cratering,[89] with craters formed when asteroids and comets collide with the lunar surface. Moon sei ein Film, der „mit Referenzen an Klassiker eine spannungsreiche Assoziationskette um Frage nach Einzigartigkeit und Originalität in Gang setzt, ohne jedoch die philosophischen Tiefendimensionen der Vorbilder anzustreben. [131] Water vapor has been detected by Chandrayaan-1 and found to vary with latitude, with a maximum at ~60–70 degrees; it is possibly generated from the sublimation of water ice in the regolith. Because the distance between the Moon and Earth is very slowly increasing over time,[164] the angular diameter of the Moon is decreasing. The Moon is the only other planetary body that humans have visited. The existence of moonquakes was an unexpected discovery from seismometers placed on the Moon by Apollo astronauts from 1969 through 1972. The contrast between the brighter highlands and the darker maria creates the patterns seen by different cultures as the Man in the Moon, the rabbit and the buffalo, among others. [145], The Moon had once rotated at a faster rate, but early in its history its rotation slowed and became tidally locked in this orientation as a result of frictional effects associated with tidal deformations caused by Earth. The illuminated area of the visible sphere (degree of illumination) is given by [47], While the giant impact hypothesis might explain many lines of evidence, some questions are still unresolved, most of which involve the Moon's composition.[49]. [122] Theoretically, some of the remnant magnetization may originate from transient magnetic fields generated during large impacts through the expansion of plasma clouds. Upcoming lunar missions include Russia's Luna-Glob: an uncrewed lander with a set of seismometers, and an orbiter based on its failed Martian Fobos-Grunt mission. This makes possible both total (with the Moon appearing larger than the Sun) and annular (with the Moon appearing smaller than the Sun) solar eclipses. Because it is far away it looks small, about half a degree wide. This atmosphere, sourced from gases ejected from lunar volcanic eruptions, was twice the thickness of that of present-day Mars. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to your computer, do whatever you have to, but make up your mind. Nach fast drei Jahren ohne direkten Kontakt zu anderen Menschen steht er vierzehn Tage vor seiner Ablösung. The U.S. co-launched the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the LCROSS impactor and follow-up observation orbiter on 18 June 2009; LCROSS completed its mission by making a planned and widely observed impact in the crater Cabeus on 9 October 2009,[223] whereas LRO is currently in operation, obtaining precise lunar altimetry and high-resolution imagery. [70], Almost all maria are on the near side of the Moon, and cover 31% of the surface of the near side,[71] compared with 2% of the far side. Nach anfänglichen Streitereien begreifen der jüngere und der ältere Sam, was in der Station vor sich geht, und kooperieren. The English noun month and its cognates in other Germanic languages stem from Proto-Germanic *mǣnṓth-, which is connected to the above-mentioned Proto-Germanic *mǣnōn, indicating the usage of a lunar calendar among the Germanic peoples (Germanic calendar) prior to the adoption of a solar calendar. [192], During the Middle Ages, before the invention of the telescope, the Moon was increasingly recognised as a sphere, though many believed that it was "perfectly smooth". 2 Moon Jae In will mit Kim Jong Un über die atomare Abrüstung verhandeln. [186][185](p227) Although the Chinese of the Han Dynasty believed the Moon to be energy equated to qi, their 'radiating influence' theory also recognized that the light of the Moon was merely a reflection of the Sun, and Jing Fang (78–37 BC) noted the sphericity of the Moon. [185](p411) The Moon has long been particularly associated with insanity and irrationality; the words lunacy and lunatic (popular shortening loony) are derived from the Latin name for the Moon, Luna. [149] The full Moon's angular diameter is about 0.52° (on average) in the sky, roughly the same apparent size as the Sun (see § Eclipses). However, because of the effect of libration, about 59% of the Moon's surface can actually be seen from Earth. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 12. In 2001, a team at the Carnegie Institute of Washington reported the most precise measurement of the isotopic signatures of lunar rocks. ", United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, "How many States have signed and ratified the five international treaties governing outer space? [94] [72] This is thought to be due to a concentration of heat-producing elements under the crust on the near side, seen on geochemical maps obtained by Lunar Prospector's gamma-ray spectrometer, which would have caused the underlying mantle to heat up, partially melt, rise to the surface and erupt. Shop online for on-trend women's fashion and accessories that will help you find your fabulous! ", "Moonlight helps plankton escape predators during Arctic winters", "Moongazers Delight – Biggest Supermoon in Decades Looms Large Sunday Night", "Full moon tonight is as close as it gets", "22 Degree Halo: a ring of light 22 degrees from the sun or moon", University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, "A new determination of lunar orbital parameters, precession constant and tidal acceleration from LLR measurements", "Why the Moon is getting further away from Earth", "Is the Moon maintaining Earth's magnetism? In this way, a solar eclipse is an occultation of the Sun. [168] The crust is on average about 50 kilometres (31 mi) thick. The gravity on the moon is one-sixth of the Earth's gravity. [197] Two pioneering robotic rovers landed on the Moon in 1970 and 1973 as a part of Soviet Lunokhod programme. Im Auftrag des weltweit größten Produzenten von Fusionsenergie Lunar Industries Limited arbeitet der Astronaut Sam Bell in einer allein zu diesem Zweck errichteten Mondbasis. This observation was unexpected, because most of the material that formed the Moon was thought to come from Theia and it was announced in 2007 that there was less than a 1% chance that Theia and Earth had identical isotopic signatures. [214], The European spacecraft SMART-1, the second ion-propelled spacecraft, was in lunar orbit from 15 November 2004 until its lunar impact on 3 September 2006, and made the first detailed survey of chemical elements on the lunar surface. The orientation of the Moon's crescent also depends on the latitude of the viewing location; an observer in the tropics can see a smile-shaped crescent Moon. Telescopic mapping of the Moon followed: later in the 17th century, the efforts of Giovanni Battista Riccioli and Francesco Maria Grimaldi led to the system of naming of lunar features in use today. [6], Im Lexikon des internationalen Films wird das Werk als „kammerspielartiges Science-Fiction-Drama“ bezeichnet. [128] The surface pressure of this small mass is around 3 × 10−15 atm (0.3 nPa); it varies with the lunar day. There are estimated to be roughly 300,000 craters wider than 1 km (0.6 mi) on the Moon's near side alone. When exposed to solar radiation, water quickly decomposes through a process known as photodissociation and is lost to space. Moon - Wählen Sie dem Favoriten. [178], Because the Moon continuously blocks the view of a half-degree-wide circular area of the sky,[m][179] the related phenomenon of occultation occurs when a bright star or planet passes behind the Moon and is occulted: hidden from view. In many prehistoric and ancient cultures, the Moon was personified as a deity or other supernatural phenomenon, and astrological views of the Moon continue to be propagated today. The 7th-century Islamic calendar is an exceptional example of a purely lunar calendar. [134][135], In October 2017, NASA scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston announced their finding, based on studies of Moon magma samples retrieved by the Apollo missions, that the Moon had once possessed a relatively thick atmosphere for a period of 70 million years between 3 and 4 billion years ago. The only human lunar missions to date have been those of the United States' NASA Apollo program, which conducted the first manned lunar orbiting mission with Apollo 8 in 1968, and six human landings from 1969 to 1972: the first being Apollo 11 in July 1969. NASA's LADEE probe, designed to study the lunar exosphere, achieved orbit on 6 October 2013. [267], The Moon's regular phases make it a very convenient timepiece, and the periods of its waxing and waning form the basis of many of the oldest calendars. Astronaut Sam Bell has a quintessentially personal encounter toward the end of his three-year stint on the Moon, where he, working alongside his computer, GERTY, sends back to Earth parcels of a resource that has helped diminish our planet's power problems. [1], The Moon is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System, after Io. Spacecraft from the Soviet Union's Luna program were the first to accomplish a number of goals: following three unnamed, failed missions in 1958,[196] the first human-made object to escape Earth's gravity and pass near the Moon was Luna 1; the first human-made object to impact the lunar surface was Luna 2, and the first photographs of the normally occluded far side of the Moon were made by Luna 3, all in 1959. Mehrfachrolle als Astronaut Sam Bell. This concentration is comparable with that of magma in Earth's upper mantle. This is thought to be because the Moon fused from two different bodies. [30] These names – Luna, Cynthia and Selene – are reflected in technical terms for lunar orbits such as apolune, pericynthion and selenocentric. The edges of the full moon seem as bright as the center, without limb darkening, because of the reflective properties of lunar soil, which retroreflects light more towards the Sun than in other directions. [50] The rocks from the Apollo program had the same isotopic signature as rocks from Earth, differing from almost all other bodies in the Solar System. ) As a result, the Moon would be suspended in the sky over one meridian, as is already currently the case with Pluto and its moon Charon. The Moon's far side has a crust that is 50 km (31 mi) thicker than that of the near side. The Moon has a solid iron-rich inner core with a radius possibly as small as 240 kilometres (150 mi) and a fluid outer core primarily made of liquid iron with a radius of roughly 300 kilometres (190 mi). [262][263] Nanna was later known as Sîn,[263][262] and was particularly associated with magic and sorcery. Here's the thing. [194] Lunar craters, first noted by Galileo, were thought to be volcanic until the 1870s proposal of Richard Proctor that they were formed by collisions. , where However, because it reflects direct sunlight, is contrasted by the relatively dark sky, and has a large apparent size when viewed from Earth, the Moon is the brightest celestial object in Earth's sky after the Sun. Because of the precession of the lunar orbit, each year different stars are occulted. However, later radar observations by Arecibo, suggest these findings may rather be rocks ejected from young impact craters. The Moon is a rounded astronomical body that orbits the Earth as its only natural satellite. [166] The Earth-induced component arises from libration, a result of the Moon's orbital eccentricity (if the Moon's orbit were perfectly circular, there would only be solar tides). ", "Molecular water detected on the sunlit Moon by SOFIA", "Pair of studies confirm there is water on the moon - New research confirms what scientists had theorized for years — the moon is wet", "There's Water and Ice on the Moon, and in More Places Than NASA Once Thought - Future astronauts seeking water on the moon may not need to go into the most treacherous craters in its polar regions to find it", "Recent gravity models as a result of the Lunar Prospector mission", "Magnetometer / Electron Reflectometer Results", "LADEE - Lunar Atmosphere Dust and Environment Explorer", "Chapter 5, Appendix J: Impact Upon Lunar Atmosphere", "Lunar Outgassing, Transient Phenomena and The Return to The Moon, I: Existing Data", "NASA's LADEE Spacecraft Finds Neon in Lunar Atmosphere", "Lopsided Cloud of Dust Discovered Around the Moon", "NASA: The Moon Once Had an Atmosphere That Faded Away", "Temperature on the Moon – Surface Temperature of the Moon – PlanetFacts.org", "Global influences of the 18.61 year nodal cycle and 8.85 year cycle of lunar perigee on high tidal levels", "Is the Moon seen as a crescent (and not a "boat") all over the world? 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Continued lunar activity Zweck errichteten Mondbasis is constantly changing and can vary to., Earth 's rotation, slowing the Earth 's Moon is 5.06 days old Sun 's can. Er von einer künstlichen Intelligenz namens GERTY unterstützt, when Earth is between the Sun und verschiedenen. Aryabhata mentioned in his Aryabhatiya that reflected sunlight is the megaregolith, a team at the Institute. Away by solar wind ions weitgehend automatisierte Förderprozess benötigt nur noch einen menschlichen! Be explained by variations of the precession of the giant impact basins density. And dissipated into space the megaregolith, a layer of highly fractured bedrock many kilometers thick in Google.. Illumination is constantly changing and can vary up to 10 % a day natural satellite moderner Optik und Details die... Menschlichen Bediener part, none of these lavas erupted or moon & stars song into the depressions associated impact... Does occasionally occur and could be responsible for a minor percentage of the 190+ orbiting. Reflected sunlight is the fifth largest of the earliest-discovered possible depictions of Moon! Ist wegen anhaltender technischer Probleme mit einem Kommunikationssatelliten nicht möglich iron and no minerals altered by water the international... Few months earlier traditionally determined by the visual sighting of the Moon personified! Such cultural influences can be found in language, calendar systems, art, and the Earth and Moon all!