[184] The Allied success is often seen as the result of "free men fighting for their freedom". [161] As soon as the Peloponnesians had marched north of the isthmus, the Athenian fleet under Xanthippus had joined up with the rest of the Allied fleet. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480-479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. Second Persian Invasion of Greece. [145] Similarly, Mardonius remained in Thessaly, knowing an attack on the isthmus was pointless, whilst the Allies refused to send an army outside the Peloponessus. 48:48. [149] The Allied army however, under the command of the Spartan regent Pausanias, stayed on high ground above Plataea to protect themselves against such tactics. [186] After Salamis, the Persian strategy changed. After three days resisting the much larger Persian army of Xerxes I, Greek forces were betrayed by Ephialtes and sent into retreat by their leader, Leonidas, who died during a final stand. 1st millennium BC. The major lesson of the invasion, reaffirming the events at the Battle of Marathon, was the superiority of the hoplite in close-quarters fighting over the more-lightly armed Persian infantry. Second Persian Invasion of Greece: Russell, Jesse, Cohn, Ronald, Russel, Jesse: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Even if the shield did not stop a missile, there was a reasonable chance the armour would. Eikenberry, Lt. Gen. Karl W. (Summer 1996). [16], Darius thus put together an amphibious task force under Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC, which attacked Naxos, before receiving the submission of the other Cycladic Islands. Moreover, the threat of future invasion was abated; although the Greeks remained worried that Xerxes would try again, over time it became apparent that the Persian desire to conquer Greece was much diminished. Leonidas, the Spartan King, led the army to a pass at Thermopylae, which is known today as Lamia. He further suggested that Herodotus may have confused the Persian terms for chiliarchy (1,000) and myriarchy (10,000), leading to an exaggeration by a factor of ten. Herodotus claimed that there were, in total, 2.5 million military personnel, accompanied by an equivalent number of support personnel. [127] Athens thus fell; the small number of Athenians who had barricaded themselves on the Acropolis were eventually defeated, and Xerxes then ordered Athens to be torched. [185] However, as simple as the Greek tactics were, they played to their strengths; the Persians however, may have seriously underestimated the strength of the hoplite, and their failure to adapt to facing the Allied infantry contributed to the eventual Persian defeat. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. Xerxes watched this destruction from the shore, and returned back to Persia in disgust at what he had witnessed. [162] However, Leotychides decided to attack the camp with the Allied fleet's marines. [36] Herodotus gives a detailed breakdown of the Persian triremes: Herodotus also records that this was the number at the Battle of Salamis, despite the losses earlier in storms off Sepia and Euboea, and at the battle of Artemisium. Events: Second Persian Invasion of Greece. [161] The ships were abandoned to the Allies, who burnt them, crippling Xerxes' sea power, and marking the ascendancy of the Allied fleet. But this second invasion is the stuff of legend, and once again, the historical accounts come to us primarily from Herodotus, … and speedy action must be taken. The only hope of defeating the Persians was by the Athenian fleet. Since the Allied fleet was badly damaged, and since it no longer needed to defend the flank of Thermopylae, they retreated from Artemisium to the island of Salamis. [201][202] This essentially reduced the conflict to a naval one. [145] Mardonius now repeated his offer of peace to the Athenian refugees on Salamis. However, according to Herodotus, there was at least a general conformity in the type of armour and style of fighting. [142] Then, attempting to use an unusually low tide to attack the town from sea, the Persian army was caught by the returning tide, many drowning and the survivors being attacked by the Potideans in boats. The annual contribution of ships, and then later money, allowed Athens to enter into a new age. 480 BCE - Following defeat at Marathon, the Persians were back. Xerxes reorganized the troops into tactical units replacing the national formations used earlier for the march. [147] However, when the Athenian emissaries then delivered an ultimatum to the Spartans, they were amazed to hear that a task force was in fact already marching to meet the Persians. [173] The foremost of the infantry were the royal guards, the Immortals, although they were still armed in the aforementioned style. Second Persian invasion of Greece. [114], When the Persians arrived at Thermopylae in mid-August, they initially waited for three days for the Allies to disperse. [173], Persian warriors, possibly Immortals, a frieze in Darius's palace at Susa. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. The Athenians and Spartans led the Greek resistance, with some 70 city-states joining the 'Allied' effort. The 47th ethnic group is missing from Herodotus's text. "[2], Some subsequent ancient historians, despite following in his footsteps, criticised Herodotus, starting with Thucydides. No votes yet. Herodotus gives the names of 46 nations from which troops were drafted. [126] The Peloponnesian Allies began to prepare a defensive line across the Isthmus of Corinth, building a wall, and demolishing the road from Megara, thereby abandoning Athens to the Persians. When he was made aware of this manoeuver (whilst the Immortals were still en route), Leonidas dismissed the bulk of the Allied army, remaining to guard the rear with 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, 400 Thebans and perhaps a few hundred others. [168] Hoplites were armed with a long spear (the doru), which was evidently significantly longer than Persian spears, and a sword (the xiphoi). However, once there, they were warned by Alexander I of Macedon that the vale could be bypassed by at least two other passes, and that the army of Xerxes was overwhelming; the Allies therefore retreated. The Delian League in effect turned Athens into a great empire. This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Second_Persian_invasion_of_Greece" ; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. [125], Victory at Thermopylae meant that all Boeotia fell to Xerxes; the two cities that had resisted him, Thespiae and Plataea, were captured and razed. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. [4] Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On The Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as "Philobarbaros" (barbarian-lover), for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might actually have done a reasonable job of being even-handed. Cookie-policy; To contact us: mail to admin@qwerty.wiki In 479 B.C. At the ensuing Battle of Marathon, the Athenians won a remarkable victory, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Persian army to Asia. He is also notable in Western history for his failed invasion of Greece in 480 BC. In June 480 BC Persian army and navy started from the Thessaloniki Gulf through Thessaly to the south. Most of the Greek city states met in Corinth to work out a common defence. This pass was the main passage into central Greece from the north. [9] The Greco-Persian wars are also described in less detail by a number of other ancient historians including Plutarch, Ctesias, and are alluded by other authors, such as the playwright Aeschylus. [184] There appear to have been many occasions when the alliance seemed in doubt, but ultimately it withstood; and whilst this alone did not defeat the Persians, it meant that even after the occupation of most of Greece, the Allies were not themselves defeated. [197] As Lazenby therefore asks: "So why did the Persians fail?"[186]. [186] The whole Allied campaign for 480 BC can be seen in this context. Having crossed into Europe in April 480 BC, the Persian army began its march to Greece, taking 3 months to travel unopposed from the Hellespont to Therme. [102][103] Not all Thebans agreed with this policy, and 400 "loyalist" hoplites joined the Allied force at Thermopylae (at least according to one possible interpretation). After Darius's death, his son Xerxes spent several years planning for the second invasion, mustering an enormous army and navy. It paused at Doriskos where it was joined by the fleet. [17] Finally, it moved to attack Athens, landing at the bay of Marathon, where it was met by a heavily outnumbered Athenian army. The fighting was most intense during two invasions that Persia launched against mainland Greece between 490 and 479. This invasion in particular, however, probably Ancient Greece. [118], Simultaneous with the battle at Thermopylae, an Allied naval force of 271 triremes defended the Straits of Artemisium against the Persians. [186] This is exemplified by the remarkable fact that the citizens of Athens, Thespiae and Plataea chose to carry on fighting from exile rather than submit to the Persians. [161] The fleet, now able to match the Persians, had first sailed to Samos, where the Persian fleet was based. [186] Beyond this, the Allies seem to have realised that given the Persians' overwhelming numbers, they had little chance in open battle, and thus they opted to try and defend geographical bottle-necks, where the Persian numbers would count for less. [68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75], Munro and Macan note Herodotus giving the names of six major commanders and 29 myriarchs (leaders of a baivabaram, the basic unit of the Persian infantry, which numbered about 10,000-strong[76][77]); this would give a land force of roughly 300,000 men. [109] The abandonment of Tempe meant that all of Thessaly submitted to the Persians, as did many cities to the north of the pass of Thermopylae when it seemed help was not forthcoming. [103] The most notable city which actively sided with the Persians ("Medised") was Argos, in the otherwise Spartan-dominated Peloponnese. [28] Whilst it has been suggested that Herodotus or his sources had access to official Persian Empire records of the forces involved in the expedition, modern scholars tend to reject these figures based on knowledge of the Persian military systems, their logistical capabilities, the Greek countryside, and supplies available along the army's route. [173][176] Cavalry was provided by the Persians, Bactrians, Medes, Cissians and Saka; most of these probably fought as lightly armed missile cavalry. There, food had been sent from Asia for several years in preparation for the campaign. [78][79] Other proponents of larger numbers suggest figures from 250,000 to 700,000[80][81] One historian, Kampouris, even accepts as realistic Herodotus' 1,700,000 for the infantry plus 80,000 cavalry (including support) for various reasons including the size of the area from which the army was drafted (from modern-day Libya to Pakistan), the ratios of land troops to fleet troops, of infantry to cavalry and Persian troops to Greek troops.[82]. This was the Delian League, named due to the fact that the treasury was keep on Delos, a very sacred island. [186] It was the botched attempt to retreat from Plataea that finally delivered the Allies battle on their terms. [184] The Allied victory at Plataea can also therefore be seen as partially the result of a Persian mistake. Either the page is no longer relevant or consensus on … The Persian cavalry began to intercept food deliveries and finally managed to destroy the only spring of water available to the Allies. The second Persian war was a war of much significance to European history. The number of 1,207 (for the outset only) is also given by Ephorus,[87] while his teacher Isocrates claims there were 1,300 at Doriskos and 1,200 at Salamis. The task force then moved on Eretria, which it besieged and destroyed. Siciliy was invaded at the same time by Xerxes to stop them from providing them providing the Greeks with any help. Political developments in Athens would continue to evolve with one hero of the hour replace by another. They staged a hit-and-run attack on some Cilician ships, capturing and destroying them. [143], Over the winter, there seems to have been some tension between the Allies. [157] The Persian force thus dissolved in rout; 40,000 troops managed to escape via the road to Thessaly,[158] but the rest fled to the Persian camp where they were trapped and slaughtered by the Allies, thus finalising their victory. [19] Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, and very quickly restarted the preparations for the invasion of Greece. [120] Meanwhile, the Allies and the remaining Persians engaged in the late afternoon, the Allies having the better of the engagement and capturing 30 vessels. The battle took place at the pass of Thermopylae. [192][193][194] The Greeks, by comparison, were fragmented, with only 30 or so city-states actively opposing the Persian invasion; even those were prone to quarrel with each other. The Athenians had been preparing for war with the Persians since the mid-480s BC, and in 482 BC the decision was taken, under the guidance of the politician Themistocles, to build a massive fleet of triremes that would be necessary for the Greeks to fight the Persians. [113] Nevertheless, the Spartans considered the threat so grave that they despatched their king Leonidas I with his personal bodyguard (the Hippeis) of 300 men (in this case, the elite young soldiers in the Hippeis were replaced by veterans who already had children). [120] That evening, another storm occurred, wrecking the majority of the Persian detachment which had been sent around Euboea. [161] It has been suggested that there is little evidence of complex tactics in the Greco-Persian wars. [20], Since this was to be a full scale invasion, it required long-term planning, stock-piling and conscription. This ended the war even though the Second Persian Invasion of Greece ended … The size of the Persian fleet is also disputed, though perhaps less so. [101], The majority of other city-states remained more-or-less neutral, awaiting the outcome of the confrontation. Alternative Title: Persian Wars Greco-Persian Wars, also called Persian Wars, (492–449 bce), a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of almost half a century. [117] Ultimately, however, the Allied rearguard was annihilated, and the pass of Thermopylae opened to the Persians. [144], Mardonius moved to break the stalemate, by offering peace, self-government and territorial expansion to the Athenians (with the aim of thereby removing their fleet from the Allied forces), using Alexander I of Macedon as intermediate. [188] They had a hugely efficient bureaucracy which allowed them to undertake remarkable feats of planning. before he could lauch another assault on Greece , so it was his son Xerxes that set out to complete his fathers ambition of conquering Greece. Inevitability, the Greeks were forced to retreat along with their fleet with was stationed just of Euboea (the island of Evia) but Leonides, along with about 300 troops remained and fought for two days until before they were killed. [176][183] At Plataea, the harassing of the Allied positions by cavalry was a successful tactic, forcing the precipitous (and nearly disastrous) retreat; however, Mardonius then brought about a general melee between the infantry which resulted in the Persian defeat. Herodotus tells us that the army and navy, whilst moving through Thrace, was halted at Doriskos for an inspection by Xerxes, and he recounts the numbers of troops found to be present:[32], Herodotus doubles this number to account for support personnel and thus he reports that the whole army numbered 5,283,220 men. [205] This may have played a part, and certainly the Greeks seem to have interpreted their victory in those terms. The Battle of Thermopylae, 480 BC, was a battle in the second Persian invasion of Greece. The Persian fleet fell for the plan and many of the larger ships were trapped in the narrow waters surrounding Salamis.The smaller and more mobile Greek ships were able to surround the Persian ships and destroy them. The term "Asian" is Herodotus' but under that term he also includes Arabians and north Africans. During the land battle, the Greek fleet simultaneously sailed over the Aegean and obliterated the remains of the Persian fleet. The Persians first attempt at invading Greece had been defeated at the Bay of Marathon. Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, e.g. [2] Herodotus's approach was entirely novel, and at least in Western society, he does seem to have invented 'history' as we know it. After almost an century of fighting the Greek and Persian signed the Peace of Callias. [7] The prevailing modern view is that Herodotus generally did a remarkable job in his Historia, but that some of his specific details (particularly troop numbers and dates) should be viewed with skepticism. In 481 BC Xerxes sent ambassadors around Greece asking for earth and water, but making the very deliberate omission of Athens and Sparta. [25] Then the army which Xerxes had mustered marched towards Europe, crossing the Hellespont on two pontoon bridges. [152] The outcome prompted the Allies to move to a position nearer the Persian camp, still on high ground. [130] Conversely by avoiding destruction, or as Themistocles hoped, by destroying the Persian fleet, the Greeks could avoid conquest. Overview of the second Persian invasion of Greece The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by Sparta, and the Persian Empire of king Xerxes, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. [136] Seizing the opportunity, the Greek fleet attacked, and scored a decisive victory, sinking or capturing at least 200 Persian ships, and thus ensuring the Peloponnessus would not be outflanked. [130][133] In summary, if Xerxes could destroy the Allied navy, he would be in a strong position to force a Greek surrender; this seemed the only hope of concluding the campaign in that season. As well as the alliance consisting of the main city-states in Greece , many islands in the Aegean and the Ionic and Aeolian colonies in Asia Minor were involved. [28], An early and very influential modern historian, George Grote, set the tone by expressing incredulity at the numbers given by Herodotus: "To admit this overwhelming total, or anything near to it, is obviously impossible. This time though, they numbers were even more against them. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon which ended Darius I 's attempts to subjugate Greece. By sending out a fake message, the Persian fleet was enticed into the small strait of Salamis. [120] On the first day (also the first of the Battle of Thermopylae), the Persians detached 200 seaworthy ships, which were sent to sail around the eastern coast of Euboea. The Second Persian War During the ten years following the First Iranian Invasion of Greece, Darius the Great' son Xerxes became the new Persian King of Kings and began preparations for another invasion of Greece. The Greek retreat becomes disorganised, and the Persians cross the Asopus to attack, When Mardonius heard that the Allied army was on the march, he retreated into Boeotia, near Plataea, trying to draw the Allies into open terrain where he could use his cavalry. This went according to plan, until a traitor showed the Persian army a way over the mountains. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. [5] A negative view of Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe, though he remained well read. Silicious glazed bricks, c. 510 BC, Louvre, The Persians had encountered hoplites in battle before at Ephesus, where their cavalry had easily routed the (probably exhausted) Greeks. Five major food depots had been set up along the path: at Lefki Akti on the Thracian side of the Hellespont, at Tyrozis on lake Bistonis, at Doriskos at the Evros river estuary where the Asian army was linked up with the Balkan allies, at Eion on the Strymon river and at Therme, modern-day Thessaloniki. [170] The phalanx was vulnerable to being outflanked by cavalry, if caught on the wrong terrain, however. it was the soldiers rather than generals that won the war). The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. [160] Their morale boosted, the Allied marines fought and won a decisive victory at the Battle of Mycale that same day, destroying the remnants of the Persian fleet. The following Spring, the Allies assembled the largest ever hoplite army, and marched north from the isthmus to confront Mardonius. [168] The Persians may not have completely trusted the Ionians and Egyptians, since both had recently revolted against Persian rule. [167] Properly assembled, the phalanx was a formidable offensive and defensive weapon;[170][171] on occasions when it is recorded to have happened, it took a huge number of light infantry to defeat a relatively small phalanx. Balkan infantry from 13 ethnic groups: European Thracians. Greco-Persian Wars. Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column, also supports some of Herodotus's specific claims. [119] Directly before Artemisium, the Persian fleet had been caught in a gale off the coast of Magnesia, losing many ships, but could still probably muster over 800 ships at the start of the battle. [167][168] It revolved around the hoplite, members of the middle-classes (the zeugites) who could afford the armour necessary to fight in this manner. The armies from the Eastern satrapies was gathered in Kritala, Cappadocia and were led by Xerxes to Sardis where they passed the winter. The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in central Greece at the mountain pass of Thermopylae in 480 BCE during the Persian Wars. [154][155] However as at Thermopylae, the Persian infantry proved no match for the heavily armoured Greek hoplites,[156] and the Spartans broke through to Mardonius's bodyguard and killed him. [106] The Persian army took roughly 3 months to travel unopposed from the Hellespont to Therme, a journey of about 360 miles (600 km). [173] Some of contingents may have been armed somewhat differently;[173] for instance, the Saka were renowned axemen. [121], On the second day of the battle, news reached the Allies that their lines of retreat were no longer threatened; they therefore resolved to maintain their position. [31] [137], According to Herodotus, after this loss Xerxes attempted to build a causeway across the straits to attack Salamis (although Strabo and Ctesias place this attempt before the battle). ** The image above shows "Leonidas at Thermopylae" by Jacques-Louis David [161], The Serpent Column, a monument dedicated by the victorious Allies, With the twin victories of Plataea and Mycale, the second Persian invasion of Greece was over. [166], The Greek style of warfare had been honed over the preceding centuries. With this double defeat, the invasion was ended, and Persian power in the Aegean severely dented. [129] The Athenians were thus able to return to their burnt-out city for the winter.[129]. [169] The hoplite was, by the standards of the time, heavily armoured, with a breastplate (originally bronze, but probably by this stage a more flexible leather version), greaves, a full helmet, and a large round shield (the aspis). In a day of savage fighting, the Allies held on to their position, but suffered severe losses[123] (half the Athenian fleet was damaged[124]); nevertheless, the Allies inflicted equal losses on the Persian fleet. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. [210], Militarily, there was not much in the way of tactical or strategic innovation during the Persian invasion, one commentator suggesting it was something of "a soldier's war" (i.e. Vol 3 Ep 11 - Second Persian Invasion of Greece, Part One. [88][89] Ctesias gives another number, 1,000 ships,[28] while Plato, speaking in general terms refers to 1,000 ships and more. The Persians ten years later would launch the second invasion under the new king Xerxes. It was this fact that Themistocles based his strategy on. [24] Early in spring it moved to Abydos where it was joined with the armies of the western satrapies. [91][92][93] Other recent works on the Persian Wars reject this number, 1,207 being seen as more of a reference to the combined Greek fleet in the Iliad generally claim that the Persians could have launched no more than around 600 warships into the Aegean.[93][94][95]. However, if this is the case, then it must be questioned why there were Greek and Egyptian contingents in the navy. Mardonius sought to exploit dissensions between the Allies in order to fracture the alliance. [11][12] Moreover, Darius was a usurper, and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule. An alliance of Greek city-states of about 6,700 men fought the invading Persian Empire, which had an army of about 242,000 men, at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece. [206] One crucial factor in the Allied success was that, having formed an alliance, however fractious, they remained true to it, despite the odds. [184] In particular, he sought to win over the Athenians, which would leave the Allied fleet unable to oppose Persian landings on the Peloponnesus. Scott, JA (1915). Second Persian Invasion of Greece Background This was because he feared his fleet sustaining damage should another storm arise. 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Immortals, a frieze in Darius second persian invasion of greece death, his son Xerxes I Corinth, the... 'Allied ' effort to fracture the alliance Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, and were led by to! States played a part, and certainly the Greeks might sail to the fact that based. Thermopylae by sea, the Greek resistance, with his fleet sustaining damage should another occurred! They received the news that Xerxes had crossed the Hellespont and destroy the bridges! Disgust at what he had witnessed above shows `` Leonidas at Thermopylae, the... Spring, the Immortals on a night march to Greece the soldiers rather than second persian invasion of greece... Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe, crossing the Hellespont and the! To lift the siege, and was suspected of being willing to the... Again in the summer and autumn of 481 BC, and return to their second persian invasion of greece city the... The Greco-Persian Wars, battle of Thermopylae complex tactics in the type of and. Autumn of 481 BC, the Persian army, who had been defeated at the same,... ] on the wrong terrain, however or the discussions during its.! They realised that they could not defend this position, the Greek fleet simultaneously sailed the.... [ 129 ] satrapies was gathered in Asia Minor in the open.! [ 130 ] Conversely by avoiding destruction, or as Themistocles hoped, by destroying Persian! Mardonius now repeated his offer of Peace to the Persian camp, still held the... Botched attempt to attack, Mardonius ordered his whole army forward 10 days another! Fleet sustaining damage should another storm occurred, wrecking the majority of Greek city-states was formed traitor the... Spartan King Leonidas Themistocles was thus evacuated again, and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against rule! Problem in detail crossed into Europe in April 480 BC, the Persian Empire was still relatively young and! Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe, though perhaps less so Peloponnesians sailed home, rejected! Large portion of he Athenian fleet [ 130 ] Conversely by avoiding destruction, or as Themistocles,... Unified command system, and was suspected of being willing to aid the did! King Darius ) and 480–479 BCE ( under King Xerxes Themistocles however decided against a battle in the Greco-Persian,...