The Persians ten years later would launch the second invasion under the new king Xerxes. Second Persian invasion of Greece. The task force then moved on Eretria, which it besieged and destroyed. [26], The numbers of troops which Xerxes mustered for the second invasion of Greece have been the subject of endless dispute, because the numbers given in ancient sources are very large indeed. [102] Thebes was a major absentee, and was suspected of being willing to aid the Persians once the invasion force arrived. [198][199] Conversely, the Allied strategy was probably to try and stop the Persian advance as far north as possible, and thus prevent the submission of as many potential Allies as possible. The armies from the Eastern satrapies was gathered in Kritala, Cappadocia and were led by Xerxes to Sardis where they passed the winter. The major lesson of the invasion, reaffirming the events at the Battle of Marathon, was the superiority of the hoplite in close-quarters fighting over the more-lightly armed Persian infantry. [120] On the first day (also the first of the Battle of Thermopylae), the Persians detached 200 seaworthy ships, which were sent to sail around the eastern coast of Euboea. [184], Thus, the Persian failure may be seen partly as a result of two strategic mistakes which handed the Allies tactical advantages, and resulted in decisive defeats for the Persians. Scott, JA (1915). [12] Darius then died whilst preparing to march on Egypt, and the throne of Persia passed to his son Xerxes I. before he could lauch another assault on Greece , so it was his son Xerxes that set out to complete his fathers ambition of conquering Greece. [167][168] It revolved around the hoplite, members of the middle-classes (the zeugites) who could afford the armour necessary to fight in this manner. [3][4] Nevertheless, Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off (at the Siege of Sestos), and therefore evidently felt that Herodotus's history was accurate enough not to need re-writing or correcting. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I’s attempts to subjugate Greece. [138] According to Herodotus, Mardonius volunteered to remain in Greece and complete the conquest with a hand-picked group of troops, whilst advising Xerxes to retreat to Asia with the bulk of the army. It was agreed that there would be a combined army and navy which would be under Spartan command, but with Themistocles, the Athenian leader, providing the strategy. [150] The Allied position now undermined, Pausanias ordered a night-time retreat towards their original positions. [184] In particular, he sought to win over the Athenians, which would leave the Allied fleet unable to oppose Persian landings on the Peloponnesus. [11][12] Moreover, Darius was a usurper, and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule. This ended the war even though the Second Persian Invasion of Greece ended … [144] Although Herodotus tells us that Mardonius was keen to fight a decisive battle, his actions in the run-up to Plataea are not particularly consistent with this. Xerxes watched this destruction from the shore, and returned back to Persia in disgust at what he had witnessed. [83] According to Herodotus the Persian fleet numbered 1,207 triremes and 3,000 transport and supply ships, including 50-oared galleys (Penteconters) (Greek πεντηκοντήρ). [118], Simultaneous with the battle at Thermopylae, an Allied naval force of 271 triremes defended the Straits of Artemisium against the Persians. Events by cover. [149] The Allied army however, under the command of the Spartan regent Pausanias, stayed on high ground above Plataea to protect themselves against such tactics. The Persian fleet fell for the plan and many of the larger ships were trapped in the narrow waters surrounding Salamis.The smaller and more mobile Greek ships were able to surround the Persian ships and destroy them. [165] The Persians in the region, and their allies made for Sestos, the strongest town in the region, which the Athenians then laid siege to; after a protracted siege, it fell to the Athenians. [186][204] Thus, the Allied victory at Salamis must at least partially be ascribed to a Persian strategic blunder. [161] The ships were abandoned to the Allies, who burnt them, crippling Xerxes' sea power, and marking the ascendancy of the Allied fleet. [104][105] However, the Argives had been severely weakened in 494 BC, when a Spartan-force led by Cleomenes I had annihilated the Argive army in Battle of Sepeia and then massacred the fugitives.[105]. [125], Victory at Thermopylae meant that all Boeotia fell to Xerxes; the two cities that had resisted him, Thespiae and Plataea, were captured and razed. At the ensuing Battle of Plataea, the Greek infantry again proved its superiority, inflicting a severe defeat on the Persians, killing Mardonius in the process. [161] It has been suggested that there is little evidence of complex tactics in the Greco-Persian wars. [130][133] In summary, if Xerxes could destroy the Allied navy, he would be in a strong position to force a Greek surrender; this seemed the only hope of concluding the campaign in that season. [143] Having taken the town, he massacred the defenders, and handed over the town to the Chalcidian people. Over the next 30 years, the Greeks, primarily the Athenian-dominated Delian League, would expel the Persians from Macedon, Thrace, the Aegean islands and Ionia. [173][176] Cavalry was provided by the Persians, Bactrians, Medes, Cissians and Saka; most of these probably fought as lightly armed missile cavalry. [150] This went awry, leaving the Athenians, and Spartans and Tegeans isolated on separate hills, with the other contingents scattered further away, near Plataea itself. The invasion began in spring 480 BC, when the Persian army crossed the Hellespont and marched through Thrace and Macedon to Thessaly. [211] Thermopylae is often used as a good example of the use of terrain as a force multiplier;[212] whilst Themistocles's ruse before Salamis is a good example of the use of deception in warfare. Warfare > Second Persian Invasion of Greece. On the same day, across the Aegean Sea an Allied navy destroyed the remnants of the Persian navy at the Battle of Mycale. [166] Herodotus ended his Historia after the Siege of Sestos. When the Persians did reach Athens, they destroyed it and burnt it down to the ground. However, if this is the case, then it must be questioned why there were Greek and Egyptian contingents in the navy. [186] At Artemisium the fleet also scored some successes, but withdrew due to the losses they had sustained, and since the defeat of Thermopylae made the position irrelevant. [117] Ultimately, however, the Allied rearguard was annihilated, and the pass of Thermopylae opened to the Persians. Events: Second Persian Invasion of Greece. [7] Nevertheless, there are still some historians who believe Herodotus made up much of his story. This dual strategy was adopted by the congress. [130] Thermopylae had shown that a frontal assault against a well defended Greek position had little chance of success;[131] with the Allies now dug in across the isthmus, there was therefore little chance of the Persians conquering the rest of Greece by land. [173], Persian warriors, possibly Immortals, a frieze in Darius's palace at Susa. The might of the Persian force is too powerful for you to resist on your own, however in joinin [166], The Greek style of warfare had been honed over the preceding centuries. Both sides thus sought out a naval victory which might decisively alter the course of the war. After almost an century of fighting the Greek and Persian signed the Peace of Callias. [168] Hoplites fought in the phalanx formation; the exact details are not completely clear, but it was a close-knit formation, presenting a uniform front of overlapping shields, and spears, to the enemy. [161] As soon as the Peloponnesians had marched north of the isthmus, the Athenian fleet under Xanthippus had joined up with the rest of the Allied fleet. This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Second_Persian_invasion_of_Greece" ; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Themistocles had predicted that Athens would soon be taken over by the Persians so he ordered the women and children of Athens to evacuate to the island of Salamis, whilst the men were sent to sea to join with the Athenian fleet. When Xerxes was eventually persuaded that the Allies intended to contest the pass, he sent his troops to attack. Conflict mounted between the Athenians and the allies of Sparta. [146] The Spartans, who were at that time celebrating the festival of Hyacinthus, delayed making a decision for 10 days. [142] Artabazus was thus forced to lift the siege, and return to Mardonius with the remnants of his men. Even after Athens fell to the advancing Persian army, the Allied fleet still remained off the coast of Salamis, trying to lure the Persian fleet to battle. [169] The hoplite was, by the standards of the time, heavily armoured, with a breastplate (originally bronze, but probably by this stage a more flexible leather version), greaves, a full helmet, and a large round shield (the aspis). [28] Whilst it has been suggested that Herodotus or his sources had access to official Persian Empire records of the forces involved in the expedition, modern scholars tend to reject these figures based on knowledge of the Persian military systems, their logistical capabilities, the Greek countryside, and supplies available along the army's route. [145] Mardonius now repeated his offer of peace to the Athenian refugees on Salamis. When time arose for the Eygptians to revolt against the Perisans, Athens decided to help and sent over a fleet of about 200 ships. [186] After they realised that they could not defend this position, they chose the next-most northerly position, the Thermopylae/Artemisium axis. [139] All of the Persian forces abandoned Attica, with Mardonius over-wintering in Boeotia and Thessaly. [107], The Allied 'congress' met again in the spring of 480 BC. [23] The Persian army was gathered in Asia Minor in the summer and autumn of 481 BC. [115] However, the Greek position was ideally suited to hoplite warfare, the Persian contingents being forced to attack the phalanx head on. [132][133] Such an outflanking of the isthmus required the use of the Persian navy, and thus the neutralisation of the Allied navy. Herodotus tells us that a Persian general, Artabazus, having escorted Xerxes to the Hellespont with 60,000 men, began the return journey to Mardonius in Thessaly. [186] Themistocles now proposed what was in hindsight the strategic masterstroke in the Allied campaign; to lure the Persian fleet to battle in the straits of Salamis. [173] The foremost of the infantry were the royal guards, the Immortals, although they were still armed in the aforementioned style. In June 480 BC Persian army and navy started from the Thessaloniki Gulf through Thessaly to the south. The term "Asian" is Herodotus' but under that term he also includes Arabians and north Africans. [168], Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting. [184] There appear to have been many occasions when the alliance seemed in doubt, but ultimately it withstood; and whilst this alone did not defeat the Persians, it meant that even after the occupation of most of Greece, the Allies were not themselves defeated. [192][193][194] The Greeks, by comparison, were fragmented, with only 30 or so city-states actively opposing the Persian invasion; even those were prone to quarrel with each other. This was because he feared his fleet sustaining damage should another storm arise. A large portion of he Athenian fleet was destroyed as well as the Persians suppressing the revolt. [173] Some of contingents may have been armed somewhat differently;[173] for instance, the Saka were renowned axemen. [21][189][190] The Persian generals had significant experience of warfare over the 80 years in which the Persian empire had been established. [20], Since this was to be a full scale invasion, it required long-term planning, stock-piling and conscription. Instead of sending his fleet out to sea he instructed his men to dig a canal through Athos, which took three years to complete. [145] Athens was thus evacuated again, and the Persians marched south and re-took possession of it. However, most of the Greek cities remained neutral or submitted to Xerxes. Page 1 of 3 - About 21 Essays The Persian Wars: The Battle Of The Persian War. Following the death of Darius, Xerxes became the new Persian king and made plans for a second invasion of mainland Greece during which panhellenic sentiment united numerous poleis in … However, once there, they were warned by Alexander I of Macedon that the vale could be bypassed by at least two other passes, and that the army of Xerxes was overwhelming; the Allies therefore retreated. An alliance of Greek city-states of about 6,700 men fought the invading Persian Empire, which had an army of about 242,000 men, at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece. [134], Thus it was that the Allied fleet remained off the coast of Salamis into September, despite the imminent arrival of the Persians. Having crossed into Europe in April 480 BC, the Persian army began its march to Greece. [6] However, since the 19th century his reputation has been dramatically rehabilitated by archaeological finds which have repeatedly confirmed his version of events. The only hope of defeating the Persians was by the Athenian fleet. [166] Peace with Persia came in 449 BC with the Peace of Callias, finally ending the half-century of warfare. A congress of states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed. [142] Then, attempting to use an unusually low tide to attack the town from sea, the Persian army was caught by the returning tide, many drowning and the survivors being attacked by the Potideans in boats. [186] It was the botched attempt to retreat from Plataea that finally delivered the Allies battle on their terms. [176][183] At Plataea, the harassing of the Allied positions by cavalry was a successful tactic, forcing the precipitous (and nearly disastrous) retreat; however, Mardonius then brought about a general melee between the infantry which resulted in the Persian defeat. [165] The Peloponnesians sailed home, but the Athenians remained to attack the Chersonesos, still held by the Persians. He claims that the losses were replenished with reinforcements, though he only records 120 triremes from the Greeks of Thrace and an unspecified number of ships from the Greek islands. [186] The Allied performance at Thermopylae was initially effective; however, the failure to properly guard the path that outflanked Thermopylae undermined their strategy, and led to defeat. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. [161] Seeing the small size of the Allied force, the Persians emerged from the camp, but the hoplites again proved superior, and destroyed much of the Persian force. This invasion in particular, however, probably [184] Mardonius may have been overeager for victory; there was no need to attack the Allies, and by doing so he played to the main Allied tactical strength, combat in the melee. [96] The Athenians did not have the man-power to fight on land and sea; therefore combatting the Persians would require an alliance of several Greek city states. Second Persian invasion of Greece is similar to these military conflicts: Greco-Persian Wars, Battle of Artemisium, Battle of Plataea and more. [150] Mardonius ordered a hit-and-run cavalry attack on the Greek lines,[151] but the attack was unsuccessful and the cavalry commander killed. Second Persian Invasion of Greece: Russell, Jesse, Cohn, Ronald, Russel, Jesse: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. [98] This confederation had the power to send envoys asking for assistance and to dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points after joint consultation. He further suggested that Herodotus may have confused the Persian terms for chiliarchy (1,000) and myriarchy (10,000), leading to an exaggeration by a factor of ten. Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column, also supports some of Herodotus's specific claims. [186] This is exemplified by the remarkable fact that the citizens of Athens, Thespiae and Plataea chose to carry on fighting from exile rather than submit to the Persians. "[66] Grote's main objection is the supply problem, though he does not analyse the problem in detail. On the third day of the battle, the remaining Allies sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians and slaughter as many as they could. [88][89] Ctesias gives another number, 1,000 ships,[28] while Plato, speaking in general terms refers to 1,000 ships and more. Initially they attempted to defend the Tempe pass to prevent the loss of Thessaly. [178] However, at the battle of Marathon, the Athenian hoplites had shown their superiority over the Persian infantry, albeit in the absence of any cavalry. In particular, the Athenians, who were not protected by the isthmus, but whose fleet were the key to the security of the Peloponnesus, felt hard done by. Jacques-Louis David [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. [144] When the other Allies failed to commit to this, the Athenian fleet probably refused to join the Allied navy in Spring. Cookie-policy; To contact us: mail to admin@qwerty.wiki [114], When the Persians arrived at Thermopylae in mid-August, they initially waited for three days for the Allies to disperse. [168] Hoplites were armed with a long spear (the doru), which was evidently significantly longer than Persian spears, and a sword (the xiphoi). They staged a hit-and-run attack on some Cilician ships, capturing and destroying them. [186][203] However, as successful as this was, there was no need for the Persians to fight at Salamis to win the war; it has been suggested that the Persians were either overconfident, or overeager to finish the campaign. [24] Early in spring it moved to Abydos where it was joined with the armies of the western satrapies. Alternative Title: Persian Wars Greco-Persian Wars, also called Persian Wars, (492–449 bce), a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of almost half a century. However, when they failed on both of these objectives, it was accepted by all that Athens should become the main city of Greece. This time though, they numbers were even more against them. [127] Athens thus fell; the small number of Athenians who had barricaded themselves on the Acropolis were eventually defeated, and Xerxes then ordered Athens to be torched. [173] It may therefore simply be that neither the Ionians nor Egyptians were included in the army because they were serving in the fleet — none of the coastal regions of the Persian empire appear to have sent contingents with the army. [21] However, the campaign was delayed one year because of another revolt in Egypt and Babylonia. 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