1st millennium BC.  The Spartans, who were at that time celebrating the festival of Hyacinthus, delayed making a decision for 10 days. Xerxes plan was to go through Thracy to get to Northern Greece, with his fleet providing protection. As well as the alliance consisting of the main city-states in Greece , many islands in the Aegean and the Ionic and Aeolian colonies in Asia Minor were involved. Xerxes reorganized the troops into tactical units replacing the national formations used earlier for the march.  A force of 10,000 Allies led by the Spartan polemarch Euenetus and Themistocles was thus despatched to the pass.  The Persians may not have completely trusted the Ionians and Egyptians, since both had recently revolted against Persian rule. Athens, along with Megara and Plataea, sent emissaries to Sparta demanding assistance, and threatening to accept the Persian terms if not. The Persians first attempt at invading Greece had been defeated at the Bay of Marathon. The poet Simonides, who was a near-contemporary, talks of four million; Ctesias gave 800,000 as the total number of the army that assembled in Doriskos. An army of 60,000 men had been left there by Xerxes, and the fleet joined with them, building a pallisade around the camp to protect the ships.  The Persians had a unified command system, and everyone was answerable to the king. Most of the Greek city states met in Corinth to work out a common defence.  Finally, it moved to attack Athens, landing at the bay of Marathon, where it was met by a heavily outnumbered Athenian army. The armies from the Eastern satrapies was gathered in Kritala, Cappadocia and were led by Xerxes to Sardis where they passed the winter. Xerxes watched this destruction from the shore, and returned back to Persia in disgust at what he had witnessed. The invasion began in spring 480 BC, when the Persian army crossed the Hellespont and marched through Thrace and Macedon to Thessaly.  Furthermore, the Persians excelled in the use of intelligence and diplomacy in warfare, as shown by their (nearly successful) attempts to divide-and-conquer the Greeks. Alternative Title: Persian Wars Greco-Persian Wars, also called Persian Wars, (492–449 bce), a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of almost half a century.  Partly as a result of subterfuge on the part of Themistocles, the navies finally engaged in the cramped Straits of Salamis. However, at the end of the second day, they were betrayed by a local resident named Ephialtes who revealed a mountain path that led behind the Allied lines to Xerxes. Second Persian Invasion of Greece: Russell, Jesse, Cohn, Ronald, Russel, Jesse: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven.  That evening, the Allies received news of the fate of Leonidas and the Allies at Thermopylae. The Persians ten years later would launch the second invasion under the new king Xerxes. Second Persian Invasion of Greece. Cookie-policy; To contact us: mail to email@example.com When Xerxes was eventually persuaded that the Allies intended to contest the pass, he sent his troops to attack.  There appear to have been many occasions when the alliance seemed in doubt, but ultimately it withstood; and whilst this alone did not defeat the Persians, it meant that even after the occupation of most of Greece, the Allies were not themselves defeated. He is also notable in Western history for his failed invasion of Greece in 480 BC. Greeks have long resisted superior Persians and held them as long as they were not surrounded by the Persians from the back. However, if the isthmus's defensive line could be outflanked, the Allies could be defeated. The Persian fleet fell for the plan and many of the larger ships were trapped in the narrow waters surrounding Salamis.The smaller and more mobile Greek ships were able to surround the Persian ships and destroy them. The Greek retreat becomes disorganised, and the Persians cross the Asopus to attack, When Mardonius heard that the Allied army was on the march, he retreated into Boeotia, near Plataea, trying to draw the Allies into open terrain where he could use his cavalry. The defence of the Isthmus of Corinth by the Allies changed the nature of the war. Both sides thus sought out a naval victory which might decisively alter the course of the war. The major lesson of the invasion, reaffirming the events at the Battle of Marathon, was the superiority of the hoplite in close-quarters fighting over the more-lightly armed Persian infantry.  Nevertheless, the Spartans considered the threat so grave that they despatched their king Leonidas I with his personal bodyguard (the Hippeis) of 300 men (in this case, the elite young soldiers in the Hippeis were replaced by veterans who already had children). You have just received word that King Xerxes I of Persia is following in his father’s footsteps and has decided to launch a second invasion of Greece. Rating: 0. At the ensuing Battle of Plataea, the Greek infantry again proved its superiority, inflicting a severe defeat on the Persians, killing Mardonius in the process. The Persians did not attempt to attack the isthmus by land, realising they probably could not breach it. Warfare > Second Persian Invasion of Greece.  Diodorus  and Lysias independently claim there were 1,200 at Doriskos. In particular, the Athenians, who were not protected by the isthmus, but whose fleet were the key to the security of the Peloponnesus, felt hard done by. Having crossed into Europe in April 480 BC, the Persian army began its march to Greece.  Thermopylae had shown that a frontal assault against a well defended Greek position had little chance of success; with the Allies now dug in across the isthmus, there was therefore little chance of the Persians conquering the rest of Greece by land.  Ultimately, the Allies succeeded because they avoided catastrophic defeats, stuck to their alliance, took advantage of Persian mistakes, and because in the hoplite they possessed an advantage (perhaps their only real advantage at the start of the conflict) which, at Plataea, allowed them to destroy the Persian invasion force.  As soon as the Peloponnesians had marched north of the isthmus, the Athenian fleet under Xanthippus had joined up with the rest of the Allied fleet.  Hereafter, they will be referred to as the 'Allies'. , Persian warriors, possibly Immortals, a frieze in Darius's palace at Susa. , A map showing the Greek world at the time of the invasion, In 491 BC, Darius sent emissaries to all the Greek city-states, asking for a gift of 'earth and water' in token of their submission to him. Themistocles however decided against a battle in the open sea.  The Persians, whose ships were in a poor state of repair, had decided not to risk fighting, and instead drew their ships up on the beach under Mycale.  Although Herodotus tells us that Mardonius was keen to fight a decisive battle, his actions in the run-up to Plataea are not particularly consistent with this. On the same day, across the Aegean Sea an Allied navy destroyed the remnants of the Persian navy at the Battle of Mycale.  The Athenians did not have the man-power to fight on land and sea; therefore combatting the Persians would require an alliance of several Greek city states. After three days resisting the much larger Persian army of Xerxes I, Greek forces were betrayed by Ephialtes and sent into retreat by their leader, Leonidas, who died during a final stand.  At Plataea, the harassing of the Allied positions by cavalry was a successful tactic, forcing the precipitous (and nearly disastrous) retreat; however, Mardonius then brought about a general melee between the infantry which resulted in the Persian defeat. , On the afternoon of the Battle of Plataea, Herodotus tells us that rumour of the Allied victory reached the Allied navy, at that time off the coast of Mount Mycale in Ionia. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA. The Allies evidently tried to play on the Persian fears about the reliability of the Ionians in Persian service; but, as far as we can tell, both the Ionians and Egyptians performed particularly well for the Persian navy.  According to Herodotus the Persian fleet numbered 1,207 triremes and 3,000 transport and supply ships, including 50-oared galleys (Penteconters) (Greek πεντηκοντήρ).  Properly assembled, the phalanx was a formidable offensive and defensive weapon; on occasions when it is recorded to have happened, it took a huge number of light infantry to defeat a relatively small phalanx. This dual strategy was adopted by the congress. , In the two major land battles of the invasion, the Allies clearly adjusted their tactics to nullify the Persian advantage in numbers and cavalry, by occupying the pass at Thermopylae, and by staying on high ground at Plataea.  Whilst it has been suggested that Herodotus or his sources had access to official Persian Empire records of the forces involved in the expedition, modern scholars tend to reject these figures based on knowledge of the Persian military systems, their logistical capabilities, the Greek countryside, and supplies available along the army's route.  The 'elite' contingents of the Persian infantry seem to have been the ethnic Persians, Medians, Cissians and the Saka.  Such an outflanking of the isthmus required the use of the Persian navy, and thus the neutralisation of the Allied navy. The Greeks would now move over to the offensive, eventually expelling the Persians from Europe, the Aegean islands and Ionia before the war finally came to an end in 479 BC. There were two mainland invasions of Greece, in 490 (under King Darius) and 480–479 BCE (under King Xerxes). In 479 B.C.  Leonidas was supported by contingents from the Peloponnesian cities allied to Sparta, and other forces which were picked up en route to Thermopylae.  One crucial factor in the Allied success was that, having formed an alliance, however fractious, they remained true to it, despite the odds. , Spring 480 BC: Thrace, Macedonia and Thessaly, August 480 BC: Thermopylae and Artemisium, The 30 marines are in addition to the figure of 200 given for the ships' crews, There is some contradiction in Herodotus's accounts. before he could lauch another assault on Greece , so it was his son Xerxes that set out to complete his fathers ambition of conquering Greece. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. Common Knowledge Events Second Persian Invasion of Greece. It paused at Doriskos where it was joined by the fleet. Introduction The Persian Wars were a series of conflicts involving the Persian Empire and many Greek city-states spanning from c.499-449 BCE.  The hoplite was, by the standards of the time, heavily armoured, with a breastplate (originally bronze, but probably by this stage a more flexible leather version), greaves, a full helmet, and a large round shield (the aspis). , Modern scholars thus generally attribute the numbers given in the ancient sources to the result of miscalculations or exaggerations on the part of the victors, or disinformation by the Persians in the run up to the war. , An early and very influential modern historian, George Grote, set the tone by expressing incredulity at the numbers given by Herodotus: "To admit this overwhelming total, or anything near to it, is obviously impossible.  The Allied victory at Plataea can also therefore be seen as partially the result of a Persian mistake. A large portion of he Athenian fleet was destroyed as well as the Persians suppressing the revolt. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.  Thus, the Allied victory at Salamis must at least partially be ascribed to a Persian strategic blunder.  The cities in any territory that the army passed through would be forced to submit or risk destruction; and indeed this happened with the Thessalian, Locrian and Phocian cities who initially resisted the Persians but then were forced to submit as the Persians advanced. Five major food depots had been set up along the path: at Lefki Akti on the Thracian side of the Hellespont, at Tyrozis on lake Bistonis, at Doriskos at the Evros river estuary where the Asian army was linked up with the Balkan allies, at Eion on the Strymon river and at Therme, modern-day Thessaloniki.  It is therefore slightly surprising that the Persians did not bring any hoplites from the Greek regions, especially Ionia, under their control in Asia. Animals had been bought and fattened, while the local populations had, for several months, been ordered to grind the grains into flour.  Their morale boosted, the Allied marines fought and won a decisive victory at the Battle of Mycale that same day, destroying the remnants of the Persian fleet. , Since this was to be a full scale invasion, it required long-term planning, stock-piling and conscription.  Similarly, Mardonius remained in Thessaly, knowing an attack on the isthmus was pointless, whilst the Allies refused to send an army outside the Peloponessus. This was the Delian League, named due to the fact that the treasury was keep on Delos, a very sacred island. An alliance of Greek city-states of about 6,700 men fought the invading Persian Empire, which had an army of about 242,000 men, at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece. A congress of states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.  Seizing the opportunity, the Greek fleet attacked, and scored a decisive victory, sinking or capturing at least 200 Persian ships, and thus ensuring the Peloponnessus would not be outflanked.  Other ancient sources give similarly large numbers. Greeks had withdrawn while the Spartans stayed and died heroi… (Redirected from Book:Second Persian invasion of Greece) This page is currently inactive and is retained for historical reference.  After Salamis, the Persian strategy changed. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. On the third day of the battle, the remaining Allies sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians and slaughter as many as they could. In June 480 BC Persian army and navy started from the Thessaloniki Gulf through Thessaly to the south. Attica was also left open to invasion, and the remaining population of Athens was thus evacuated, with the aid of the Allied fleet, to Salamis.  The Peloponnesian Allies began to prepare a defensive line across the Isthmus of Corinth, building a wall, and demolishing the road from Megara, thereby abandoning Athens to the Persians.  It revolved around the hoplite, members of the middle-classes (the zeugites) who could afford the armour necessary to fight in this manner.  The prevailing modern view is that Herodotus generally did a remarkable job in his Historia, but that some of his specific details (particularly troop numbers and dates) should be viewed with skepticism. Either the page is no longer relevant or consensus on …  Hoplites were armed with a long spear (the doru), which was evidently significantly longer than Persian spears, and a sword (the xiphoi).  The most notable city which actively sided with the Persians ("Medised") was Argos, in the otherwise Spartan-dominated Peloponnese.  In summary, if Xerxes could destroy the Allied navy, he would be in a strong position to force a Greek surrender; this seemed the only hope of concluding the campaign in that season.  However, the Argives had been severely weakened in 494 BC, when a Spartan-force led by Cleomenes I had annihilated the Argive army in Battle of Sepeia and then massacred the fugitives.. , Victory at Thermopylae meant that all Boeotia fell to Xerxes; the two cities that had resisted him, Thespiae and Plataea, were captured and razed. The 47th ethnic group is missing from Herodotus's text.  Other proponents of larger numbers suggest figures from 250,000 to 700,000 One historian, Kampouris, even accepts as realistic Herodotus' 1,700,000 for the infantry plus 80,000 cavalry (including support) for various reasons including the size of the area from which the army was drafted (from modern-day Libya to Pakistan), the ratios of land troops to fleet troops, of infantry to cavalry and Persian troops to Greek troops..  Support thus began to coalesce around these two states. The number of 1,207 (for the outset only) is also given by Ephorus, while his teacher Isocrates claims there were 1,300 at Doriskos and 1,200 at Salamis. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. Second Persian Invasion of Greece Background ** The image above shows "Leonidas at Thermopylae" by Jacques-Louis David The second Persian invasion of Greece (480-479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. The Battle of Artemisium, or Battle of Artemision, was a series of naval engagements over three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece.  Nevertheless, Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off (at the Siege of Sestos), and therefore evidently felt that Herodotus's history was accurate enough not to need re-writing or correcting. The Persian Empire was still relatively young, and prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples. , Diagram reconstructing the armament of a Greek hoplite, The Persian infantry used in the invasion were a heterogeneous group drawn from across the empire.  He seems to have been willing to accept battle on his terms, but he waited either for the Allies to attack, or for the alliance to collapse ignominiously. He further suggested that Herodotus may have confused the Persian terms for chiliarchy (1,000) and myriarchy (10,000), leading to an exaggeration by a factor of ten. , Whilst besieging Potidea, Artabazus also decided to besiege Olynthus, which was also in revolt. The Athenians and Spartans led the Greek resistance, with some 70 city-states joining the 'Allied' effort. Second Persian invasion of Greece is similar to these military conflicts: Greco-Persian Wars, Battle of Artemisium, Battle of Plataea and more. , In 481 BC, after roughly four years of preparation, Xerxes began to muster the troops for the invasion of Europe. Herodotus gives the names of 46 nations from which troops were drafted. However, a larger Allied army fortified the narrow Isthmus of Corinth, protecting the Peloponnesus from Persian conquest. The allies had no 'standing army', nor was there any requirement to form one; since they were fighting on home territory, they could muster armies as and when required. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. The battle took place at the pass of Thermopylae. The might of the Persian force is too powerful for you to resist on your own, however in joinin  Taking on this lesson the Persian empire would later, after the Peloponnesian War, start recruiting and relying on Greek mercenaries. It paused at Doriskos where it was joined by the fleet. Events by cover.  The Peloponnesians sailed home, but the Athenians remained to attack the Chersonesos, still held by the Persians. , On the second day of the battle, news reached the Allies that their lines of retreat were no longer threatened; they therefore resolved to maintain their position. It was agreed that there would be a combined army and navy which would be under Spartan command, but with Themistocles, the Athenian leader, providing the strategy. Instead of sending his fleet out to sea he instructed his men to dig a canal through Athos, which took three years to complete. it was the soldiers rather than generals that won the war). 480 BCE - Following defeat at Marathon, the Persians were back. These ships were to round Euboea and block the line of retreat for the Allied fleet. This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Second_Persian_invasion_of_Greece" ; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.  It was the botched attempt to retreat from Plataea that finally delivered the Allies battle on their terms. He claims that the losses were replenished with reinforcements, though he only records 120 triremes from the Greeks of Thrace and an unspecified number of ships from the Greek islands.  Early in spring it moved to Abydos where it was joined with the armies of the western satrapies.  The Allied strategy for 479 BC was something of a mess; the Peloponnesians only agreed to march north in order to save the alliance, and it appears that the Allied leadership had little idea how to force a battle that they could win.  As Lazenby therefore asks: "So why did the Persians fail?".  Nevertheless, there are still some historians who believe Herodotus made up much of his story. After Darius’s death, his son Xerxes spent several years planning for … After Thermopylae, all of Boeotia and Attica fell to the Persian army, who captured and burnt Athens. The plan was to trap the Persian army in this bottle-neck, where the fact they were vastly outnumbered would have little influence on the outcome. The Second Persian War During the ten years following the First Iranian Invasion of Greece, Darius the Great' son Xerxes became the new Persian King of Kings and began preparations for another invasion of Greece. Second Persian invasion of Greece. The task force then moved on Eretria, which it besieged and destroyed. , A second strategy was therefore suggested to the Allies by Themistocles. , The majority of other city-states remained more-or-less neutral, awaiting the outcome of the confrontation.  On the third day, however, the Persian fleet attacked the Allies lines in full force. Overview of the second Persian invasion of Greece The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by Sparta, and the Persian Empire of king Xerxes, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.  The town was held by the Bottiaean tribe, who had been driven out of Macedon.  This confederation had the power to send envoys asking for assistance and to dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points after joint consultation.  They had a hugely efficient bureaucracy which allowed them to undertake remarkable feats of planning.  The Persian generals had significant experience of warfare over the 80 years in which the Persian empire had been established. Herodotus claimed that there were, in total, 2.5 million military personnel, accompanied by an equivalent number of support personnel. The fighting was most intense during two invasions that Persia launched against mainland Greece between 490 and 479. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I’s attempts to subjugate Greece.  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