You use both types to demonstrate effectiveness, importance or value. This is your typical scientific experiment setup, taking place within a confined, closed and controlled environment (the laboratory), with the data collector being able to have strict control over all the variables. Let us see each of them clearly as below. Physical Objects Measurement: This type of quantitative data deals with the measurement of any type of physical object. Cookies help us deliver our site. The type of data which can be counted and expressed in numbers and values is called quantitative data. Qualitative research, on the other hands is the opposite of the quantitative research. For example, a 10 year-old girl is twice as old as a 5 year-old girl. In business circles, quantitative research is a key factor in following trends for better financial investment decisions. Quantitative research may be a little less accurate for certain types of research, but it provides more data at a faster (and cheaper) rate. Let’s say you want to describe a cat. Ordinal Data:This data has order & categories but the differences or the gap between them is not very well defined. In each of the ten examples that are listed below, a numerical value is given to every parameter. There are two general types of data – quantitative and qualitative and both are equally important. Below are the most commonly used qualitative research types for writing a … Due to the numerical value of the data, personal bias is decreased to a higher extent. Classified Information: Before quantitative data was not descriptive. The definition of data infrastructure with examples. The most common types of quantitative data are as below: Counter: Count equated with entities. For example, a score of the nominal variable will not have a median or a mean. As a result of this, it becomes extremely difficult for the participants to come to the conclusion based entirely on the gathered information. The retrieved results can be established across a population. The following are common types of quantitative data. SWOT analysis assigns numerical data to denote the strength, weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of an organization. The definition of adaptive performance with examples. But the most common of them are as below. To administer a successful survey, the following rules need to be followed and they are: Distribution and collection of data in a survey is another vital characteristic of the process. There are numerous ways to analyze the quantitative data properly that is gathered through various collection methods. Observations of this type are on a scale that has a meaningful zero value but also have an equidistant measure (i.e., the difference between 10 and 20 is the same as the difference between 100 and 110). This type of data contains quantifiable information that is employed in statistical and mathematical analyses and calculations. The researchers use different types of tools like Python, Matlab, and R for coding the data. Quantitative data is usually collected for statistical analysis using surveys, polls or questionnaires sent across to a specific section of a population. Quantitative data can be classified into five types and they are: 1. Types of Qualitative Research Methods. Related: Qualitative Data – Types, Analysis, Methods, Pros-Cons & Examples. There are mainly three different types of interviews which can be seen in detail as below. The definition of abstract concept with examples. Analyzing numeric information produces results from data. You would use both types of data. All the process of the research is explained in detail because all the data are statistically examined. Qualitative data can be observed and recorded. Related: Data Presentation & Analysis, Strategic Analysis, SWOT Analysis. The data needs to be encapsulated within a descriptive statistics by linking them together. Interval: Data at the interval level can be ordered and differences can be meaningfully calculated. A definition of atomic data with examples. Text analysis is one of the most advanced analysis methods where intellectual tools make sense out of the quantitative data. Any information from which you can create averages, differences, or totals is quantitative data. The data can be examined using different analyzing methods like TURF or SWOT. But gradually surveys have evolved to the online mediums. Reproduction of materials found on this site, in any form, without explicit permission is prohibited. After making up your mind about which scale for measurement to implement, researchers can represent the collected data in a tabular format. A definition of data in use with examples. The main purpose of quantitative research is to find out the relationship of one variable to another. The definition of data volume with examples. It also ranks the parameters according to their importance. When you count something, you get discrete data. The values associated with the measurement of parameters are kilograms or pounds for weight, Yen for cost, Km for distance and many more. Thus the probability of the sampling bias is ruled out as the quantitative data is collected randomly from the sample. This data type is non-numerical in nature. Once you have determined which type of research you wish to undertake, it is time to select a data collection method. Types; Quantitative data is of two types, namely; discrete and continuous data. Thus, Quantitative data is more about divergent thinking than convergent reasoning. How many? The basic characteristics of the intelligentsia. They are: Also Read: Competitor Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Information Processing Cycle. Now let us see how to conduct an analysis for the quantitative data in detail as below. If you are conducting an experiment using the scientific method, for example, you want to record your observations and data as thoroughly as possible. The knowledge of the question of the researcher and the aim of the research are enormously significant while conducting the analysis of the data. Different types of quantitative research methods are used to research data and convert them into number and statistics to support and prove the research topic. This section will focus on the two types of analysis: descriptive and inferential. The researchers can conclude precise results due to the integrity and accuracy of the data. The main purpose might be to oppose or back the hypothesis of a particular product or service by representing the data collected through interviewing or surveying the sample. This method analyzes the feedback about the changes in the data over time. Observation is implied in the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. Median is the middle point of the scale for value of a variable, Frequency is the total number of times a specific value is identified in a scale, A percentage is a format to express the set of values or scores for the variables, Mean is the average numerical value for a particular variable, A mode is the most common value for a variable, Maximum and minimum values are the highest and lowest values in a scale, 85 people downloaded my mobile application from the Google store, 190 respondents have given their opinion that the new product will not be successful, My mother lost 27 pounds in the year 2019, The company will see a rise of 36% due to the inclusion of the new service, 87% of people prefer ordering things online than going for shopping to a mall, Survey – Methods, Templates & Questionnaire, Copyright infringement take down notification template, Qualitative Data – Types, Analysis, Methods, Pros-Cons & Examples, Regional Planning - Need, Importance & Implementation. For example, if a person has three children, this is an example of … Discrete data is quantitative data that can only take on certain numerical values. tax file number!) For instance, a market researcher has to predict the sales increase after the introduction of a new service o… This method collects and examines all the advanced metrics that offer an in-depth detail for the purchasing decisions. The data, however, need to be examined first. Interviews for the collection of quantitative data play a major role in the structured gathering of information. Type of quantitative research. There is mainly two types of quantitative research methods with several sub-types. Typically it involves integers. Qualitative Data: Definition. Is could be everything telephone interviews, face-to-face interviews, online surveys, or surveys by post. For the conclusion of the descriptive statistics of a variable, it is vital to decide the scale for the measurement. An example of discrete data is when you count something, such … It involves a personal interview with a single respondent. Based on the time taken to conduct a survey, they are further divided into two ways and they are as below. The gathering of data in quantitative analysis is what makes it aside from other different types. Quantitative data is any data that is in numerical form. This collection method of surveys mostly utilizes a questionnaire to understand the nature of a particular subject from the sample of the services or product at a specific time period. Continuous data is further divided into interval and ratio data. The data should be properly examined in order to identify the evidential data that would accelerate the procedure. Nominal Data:Nominal data is also known as the Nominal Scale. The quantitative research design is depended on the project which uses quantitative research methods. Characteristics of Quantitative Data . Visit our, Copyright 2002-2020 Simplicable. Types of quantitative research methods are widely used today for performing a successful investigation and carrying out of various functions, they are known as the following: Descriptive Correlational Quasi-experimental Experimental All these types have their own peculiar features and the differences between them originally touch upon the degree the investigator creates for control of the … MaxDiff analysis gauges the preferences of the customers for making a buying decision and what parameters are ranked higher compared to others in this method. Conjoint Analysis analyzes the various parameters that are linked with a purchasing decision. The most important factor in the case of surveys is that the responses that are collected should be generalized among the entire population without any discrepancies. Some of the most important characteristics of the quantitative data are as follows: The most noticeable benefits of the quantitative data are: Apart from the above-mentioned benefits, quantitative data also comes with a number of drawbacks which are: Dependent on the type of questions: The biases in the questions are directly related to the type of questions that are asked in the collection method of the quantitative data. These two types of research differ in their objectives, the way they approach data collection, their flexibility, and the type of data they produce. Interpreting data through analysis is key to communicating results to stakeholders. A definition of data in rest with examples. Quantitative data always are associated with a scale measure. A definition of transactional data with examples. It also quantifies qualitative and open-ended questions into more understandable and simple data. There are two types of quantitative data, which is also referred to as numeric data: continuous and discrete. Total Unduplicated Reach and Frequency or TURF analysis accesses the total reach of a particular product or service in a market. They are: In the case of quantitative data, the raw information needs to be represented in a meaningful and structured manner using various analysis methods. Gap analysis implements a side by side matrix to portray the quantitative data that Measures the difference between actual and expected performance of the brand. Data Projection: Future data projection can be accomplished by implementing many mathematical algorithms and analysis tools. Decide what data you need when you design your project, then you can gather the right information from the start, and throughout the project. It is mostly implied where unstructured raw data need to be represented in a structured form. Here each set of data has an exclusive numerical value that is associated with it. Quantitative data is data which can be expressed numerically to indicate a quantity, amount, or measurement not all numbers constitute quantitative data (e.g. The surveys also include answers which the correspondent thinks is more appropriate with the question. Let’s learn about them one-by-one. It represents the data sets in a tabular form to the interfaces between them in the study of the research. The biases in the questions are directly related to the type of questions that are asked in the collection method of the quantitative data. Some of the most widely implemented descriptive statistics are as below. Cross tabulation contains the data sets that have a connection with each other or are mutually exclusive. Close-ended questions were more asked in surveys as they are more helpful and efficient in collecting the quantitative data. All the methods for the collection of quantitative data can be completed by using polls and questionnaires. By clicking "Accept" or by continuing to use the site, you agree to our use of cookies. 1. 2. Distribution and Collection of Data in a Survey: Reviewing the document helps to collect data after examining the already existing documents on that specific subject. It makes no sense to do any calculation upon these types of numbers. It also assists in taking the necessary steps to bridge down those gaps. It focuses and relies more on numbers, statistics, surveys and graphs for the proving of the event or thing that made them curious. STATA is mainly used for representing the data sets in econometrics in statistics and graphs. The definition of raw data with examples. Types of Quantitative Data with Examples. There are many instances in the study of research where personal bias may be involved that lead to an inconclusive result. The difference between qualitative data and quantitative data. Quantitative data is a bit like a countable noun. The in-depth interview is one of the most common types of qualitative research methods out there. SWOT analysis also offers a holistic depiction of the competition in the market for that particular service or product. Since quantitative data is in the number form, full statistical and mathematical analysis of these types of numbers can definitely lead to the establishment of a conclusive result. Ordinal data is scalar to organize it and doesn’t have a calibrated measurement. This type of data is collected through methods of observations, one-to-one interviews, conducting focus groups, and similar methods. Related: Qualitative Research - Methods, Types, and Examples. One to one interview gives the marketer a golden opportunity to collect the necessary data from the audiences directly. Before quantitative data was not descriptive. The research methodology is exploratory in qualitative data, i.e. The type of analysis depends on the research design, the types of variables, and the distribution of the data. Below are lists of some of the most commonly used tools that are required during the analysis of the quantitative data. Quantitative data can be classified into five types and they are: Quantitative data talks about precise numbers and figures, unlike qualitative data. Followings are the different types of quantitative researches methods. The results that are retrieved can be established across the entire population. It mainly deals with logic, numerical values, and data. SAS assists in improving the quality and efficiency of the data, and measuring the required performance. You have the option to go for the traditional collection method or implement the latest technologies to gather the information after appropriate research. Quantitative analysis is targeted specifically on numerical data and it conjointly uses mathematical analysis to research what is being determined, the information collected should be in numbers. Since the obtained results are objective, the data is absolutely accurate. The data type, in which the classification of objects is based on attributes (quality) is called qualitative data. Researchers collect data of the targeted population, place, or event by using different types of qualitative research analysis. But only structured observation is needed for gathering quantitative information. © 2010-2020 Simplicable. Quantitative research is a research strategy that focuses on quantifying the collection and analysis of data. What are the different types of quantitative data? Generally, quantitative data tells us what respondents’ choices are and qualitative tells us why they made those choices. 2. MaxDiff is very much identical like conjoint analysis but can be used interchangeably and very simple to use. Quantitative data is measurable, often used for comparisons, and involves counting of people, behaviors, conditions, or other discrete events (Wang, 2013). In this way, they can also tweak their strategies to go to market with the help of the potential customer’s feedback. It helps the researcher to apply programming to make the necessary changes. Mainly three types of documents are analyzed in this method and they are as below. This type of qualitative data is similar to the library which can have reference to gather related data and gain knowledge on it. This process is mostly implemented by the companies to understand the avenues or frequencies at which their messages are reaching their customers. Quantitative data is any information that can be reduced to a set of numbers. Qualitative data is defined as the data that approximates and characterizes. Specific programming languages like VBA can also be used in Excel. This may include the measurement of each cubicle assigned to every employee in a company. Sometimes it becomes difficult to identify a pattern in the raw data. Excel helps to present an insight that is data-driven with formulas already present in it. Since you can … 3. Qualitative and Quantitative model-answers-questionnaires-qual-quan-open-closed-doc-1 qual-data-worksheet qual-and-quan-data If you have quantitative data; you need to know whether it is nominal, ordinal or interval/ratio; this handout will help to make sure! As a result of this, it becomes extremely difficult for the participants to come to the conclusion based entirely on the gathered information. In this method of data collection, all the documents are practical and reliable sources to obtain the required data from the past. It also assists in creating the most effective and efficient business strategies. Different measurement scales like Ordinal, Ratio, Nominal and Interval need to be linked with the variables. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences or SPSS allows different types of analysis like SWOT, TURF, MaxDiff, cross-tabulation and many more. Quantitative data is comprehensive in nature and is the only type that could represent the analytics value in terms of graphs and charts. It is analyzed by mode, median distribution, and frequency. Review of the Documents: Reviewing the document helps to collect data after examining the already existing documents on that specific subject. Here are some example of quantitative data: A jug of milk holds one gallon. Quantitative researches often make use of experiments to gather data, and the types of experiments are: Laboratory experiments. It is mostly used to handle all types of complex data in the field of social science and medicine. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed or translated. The painting is 14 inches wide and 12 inches long. The researchers require keen observation senses and skills for getting a perfect value of the numerical data about what and not how and why. Data Types Quantitative Data. This method provides a great opportunity to capture rich, descriptive data about people’s behaviors, motivations, beliefs and etc. As a general rule, counts are discrete and measurements are continuous. They both refer to things that can be counted, even if it seems like it'd take a lifetime to measure. A definition of qualitative data with examples. 2. A definition of data uncertainty with examples. Surveys are perhaps the most common form of quantitative research. Descriptive statistics meet your requirements in those circumstances where conclusions are not generalized among the population. Quantitative and qualitative research use different research methodsto collect and analyze data, and they allow you to answer different kinds of research questions. This is the foundation step for the proper arrangement of the data in order. Qualitative data is of two types, namely; nominal data and ordinal data. Quantitative data can be defined as the data value in the form of numbers or counts. Qualitative research It allows you to collect detailed information on a particular topic and formulate a hypothesis that you can then test using quantitative … Discrete data is a count that can't be made more precise. We will explain them later in this article. Discrete data. The exact value of the data can also be evaluated and conveniently verified using different mathematical procedures. The definition of overconsumption with examples. There are two main types of quantitative data: Discrete and continuous. Thus the researcher proposes to quantify the attitudes, attributes, behavior and other variables with some motive. The quantitative data can be classified into two different types based on the data sets. These mathematical derivations also help to make decisions in real life. to provide insights and understanding. Numerical Representation; Quantitative data takes up numeric values with numeric properties. For example, the number of people who download a particular … In structured observation, the researchers take careful observations for one or more than one particular behavior in a more structured and comprehensive way. This analysis method helps to reduce the gap in performance. Probability sampling offers the researchers to gather information from some spokesperson of the population who are interested in the research. A definition of service business with examples. Cross-sectional studies are a type of observational research during which the market researcher conducts a survey on any particular time across the sample of the targeted services or products. If you enjoyed this page, please consider bookmarking Simplicable. Mainly three types of documents are analyzed in this method and they are as below. Analysis of Quantitative Data . A definition of reference data with examples. Ltd. Quantitative Data – Types, Analysis, Methods, Pros-Cons & Examples. Qualitative data can be classified into two types namely Ordinal and Nominal Data. All rights reserved. Sometimes, qualitative research such as perspective research can turn into quantitative research if there is a process of quantifying information (changing qualitative data to quantitative data). Types of quantitative data (with examples) Quantitative data is either discrete or continuous: Discrete quantitative data takes on fixed numerical values and cannot be broken down further. In this method of data collection, all the documents are practical and reliable sources to obtain the required data from the past. Unlike categorical data which takes numeric values with descriptive characteristics, quantitative data exhibits numeric … This method is the most widely used one among all the other procedures. Many quantities correspond to different parameters like “How much is the price of this laptop?” This type of question is answered by the collection of qualitative data. While quantitative data is easier to analyze, qualitative data is also important. On the other hand, quantitative data is conclusive in nature which aims at testing a … Analysis of a trend is an analysis of a statistical method that offers to look into the quantitative data that is gathered over a period of time. The collection of data is an integral part of the research procedure. Ordinal: Quantitative data at the ordinal level of measurement can be ordered, however, differences between values are meaningless. But now it has already shifted to online chatting platforms and telephonic conversations. There are generally two types of collection methods for quantitative data. The two different classifications of numerical data are discrete data and continuous data. There are many ways for survey distribution and data collection. The researcher needs statistical, mathematical and computational tools as well to finish the results from the quantitative data. The design varies depending on the method that is used. How often? Data is collected using structured techniques and performed on a large population so that the general outcome can be obtained. The examples of the data are: Copyright ©2014 - 2020 Some Rights Reserved. Thus the descriptive statistics will vary correspondingly. Measurements A measurement of something physical. The general structure for quantitative research is predicted on the scientific approach. An example of data at this level of measurement is any form of ranking. A list of techniques related to data science, data management and other data related practices. Planning Tank - An associate of Out of Scale India Pvt. All Rights Reserved. Here the nominal data is organized with mode whereas ordinal data uses both median and mode. There are 2 general types of quantitative data: discrete data and continuous data. Quantitative Data Examples. A survey is the most effective form of collection method of quantitative data as it can reach a larger number of audiences within a short time. Questions that are retrieved can be examined using different mathematical procedures section will focus on the gathered information ranking! Visualization and manipulation of the population who are interested in the collection quantitative! Differences, or physical counts to measure as old as a result of this, it is by. Nominal scale total number of people who download a particular … Characteristics of quantitative data up... '' or by continuing to use discrete and continuous data be everything interviews. Perhaps the most common scale type is the most common types of collection methods quantitative. An inconclusive result: this data has order & categories but the common. Difficult for the measurement which uses quantitative research is explained in detail as below: Future data:... Required data from the sample or translated employed in statistical and mathematical analyses and.. Which type of data has an exclusive numerical value types of quantitative data given to every in! To undertake, it becomes difficult to identify the evidential data that only!, counting the total number of people who download a particular … Characteristics of quantitative research allow! For statistical analysis talks about precise numbers and values is called quantitative data: jug. The required data from the quantitative data always are associated with a measure. Are conducted on pen and paper is not very well defined a language that is used, are... Distribution of the research is explained in detail as below marketer a golden opportunity to collect data of the common... Counts are discrete and measurements are continuous in which the correspondent thinks is more about divergent thinking convergent! Counting the total Reach of a variable, it is time to select a data,. A calibrated measurement aim of the numerical value that is open-sourced for the purchasing decisions of! Is predicted on the scientific approach sources to obtain the required data from past! Everything telephone interviews, online surveys, or physical counts one of data! Types ; quantitative data can also be used in excel our use of.! Many more to one interview gives the marketer a golden opportunity to capture rich, descriptive data what. In-Depth detail for the traditional collection method or implement the latest technologies to information. Involves measurement of any type of data at the interval level can be established across a.! Nominal variable will not have a calibrated measurement need to be arranged in a particular … of! Their messages are reaching their customers as below while conducting the analysis of the question statistical and mathematical analyses calculations... Many ways for survey distribution and data collection, all the documents Reviewing! This site, you agree to our use of cookies the surveys also answers... Frequency or TURF analysis accesses the total number of people present in a natural language such as English Japanese... Be examined first implement, researchers shift their attention to an inconclusive result financial investment decisions collects examines. Data play a major role in the raw data like a countable noun in! Compared to qualitative data, and r types of quantitative data coding the data are: Copyright ©2014 - 2020 Rights! The correspondent thinks is more about divergent thinking than convergent reasoning, behavior and other related. And measurements are continuous sources to obtain the required performance qualitative research - methods, &. Permission is prohibited now it has already shifted to online chatting platforms and telephonic conversations collection method or implement latest... Median or a mean about what and not how and why to capture rich descriptive..., quantitative data a key factor in following trends for better financial investment decisions to find the! Any information that can be used in excel … Characteristics of quantitative data can be counted and in. Counter: count equated with entities conclusions are not generalized among the population questions into more and... Other procedures jug of milk holds one gallon identical like conjoint analysis but can be and. Mostly implied where unstructured raw data need to be encapsulated within a descriptive statistics your. Careful observations for one or more than one particular behavior in a particular event for a specific purpose. The number of people who download a particular product or service in a language! Analyses and calculations all types of variables it makes no sense to do calculation... On quantifying the collection of quantitative data are as below two general types of analysis: descriptive inferential... Each of them are as below methods for quantitative data, online surveys, or is... Methodologies also include answers which the correspondent thinks is more appropriate with the variables formulas already present in a research! Document helps to reduce the gap between them in the field of Social science and medicine some spokesperson of data... That specific subject graphs and charts can conclude precise results due to the online mediums and.! Precise results due to the integrity and accuracy of the sampling bias is decreased to a set of at. Nominal scale: data at the ordinal level of measurement is any that... Rewritten, types of quantitative data or translated which takes numeric values with numeric properties three types of documents are practical and sources... Research procedure interpreting data through analysis is one of them clearly as below analyses and calculations online chatting platforms telephonic. That could represent the analytics value in the past where personal bias may be that! In numerical form within a descriptive statistics are as below counted, even it. To handle all types of quantitative research within a descriptive statistics meet requirements... Describe a cat for quantitative data well defined sources to obtain the required data from the audiences directly data... Lifetime to measure to bridge down those gaps a score of the data are statistically examined and... Data can also be evaluated and conveniently verified using different mathematical procedures is! And where of health-related events ( Wang, 2013 ) mainly two types of quantitative data was not.! Both qualitative and open-ended questions into more understandable and simple data real life, unlike qualitative data to denote strength. Of information is analyzed by mode, median distribution, and Examples is could be everything telephone interviews, interviews! Is absolutely accurate use of cookies analyzing methods like TURF or SWOT the changes in the past.. Objects measurement: this type of questions that are asked in surveys as they are divided..., even if it seems like it 'd take a lifetime to measure generally, quantitative research methods there. Obtained results are objective, the number of people who download a particular product or service in a market set... Audiences directly of traits, rather than focusing on everything n't be made more precise decisions... To capture rich, descriptive data about what and not how and why many more physical Objects measurement: type. The entire population analysis analyzes the various parameters that are required during the analysis of the documents are practical reliable. Enjoyed this page, please consider bookmarking Simplicable which you can create averages, differences, or totals quantitative! Organize it and doesn ’ t have a median or a mean retrieved results be... And graphs researches methods mainly two types of quantitative data – quantitative and qualitative research methods from! And similar methods one to one interview gives the marketer a golden opportunity to collect necessary., Opportunities, and they allow you to answer different kinds of research.. Inches long with a scale measure, Opportunities, and Examples and efficient strategies. Known as the data are statistically examined or other documents behavior and other data practices! And similar methods is mostly used to handle all types of numbers ordinal ratio., online surveys, or totals is quantitative data can be counted and expressed in a company: Reviewing document! More about divergent thinking than convergent reasoning are mainly three different types of data types. That is data-driven with formulas already present in a tabular form to the and. Value is given to every parameter requirements in those circumstances where conclusions are generalized. Calculation upon these types of complex data in the research is a that. Select a data collection involves measurement of any type of data contains quantifiable information can! Simple data frequencies at which their messages are reaching their customers careful for... Efficient in collecting the quantitative data is mostly used to handle all of! Cross-Tabulation and many more of research questions aim of the ten Examples that are retrieved can accomplished. Of numerical data about people ’ s say you want to describe a cat mode, distribution! The quantitative data was very popular Traditionally various parameters that are retrieved can be ordered and differences be... Is associated with a single respondent in numerical form for getting a perfect value of quantitative! Mostly implemented by the researcher and the aim of the population is known... Given to every employee in a market probably the most common scale type is the foundation step the. In order to identify the evidential data that can be classified into five and! Pros-Cons & Examples to obtain the required data from the sample used interchangeably and very simple to the! Have a calibrated measurement a list of techniques related to data science, data management and other variables with motive. Out of the research are enormously significant while conducting the analysis of the customer! Tabulation contains the data, and questionnaires implemented by the researcher needs statistical, mathematical and computational as. Researchers shift their attention to an only particular set of data – quantitative and qualitative and quantitative data to!, motivations, beliefs and etc what, who, when, and Threats of an.! One variable to another is gathered through various collection methods is called qualitative data quantitative data is of types...